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Archive for October, 2014

Radio to the rescue: saving lives via the airwaves

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Comedian Lankoande Ardiouma Tchadien acts in radio dramas carrying important health messages.

Could the humble radio save a million lives in the developing world?

Researchers have shown that a radio campaign broadcasting key health messages in Burkina Faso really does change people’s behaviour.

In Radio Djiawoampo’s studio, the actors are hamming up the benefits of using a proper toilet instead of relieving yourself out in the woods.

The entertaining drama is part of a radio campaign promoting child health across Burkina Faso.

Three quarters of the country’s population listen to the radio every day, so it can have real impact, according to Matthew Lavoie of Development Media International (DMI), the organisation behind the campaign.

“One of the most troubling, devilling, stubborn public health problems in the developing world is child mortality […] Our goal is to reduce mortality, and we think that the most effective tool is mass communication.”

Millions are spent each year on health campaigns in developing countries, but is there any real proof they work?

And in the current Ebola outbreak, public health messages are being put out by a number of radio stations.

In the first trial of its kind, researchers have shown that radio – often written off as an old-fashioned medium – really does affect people’s behaviour.

And this translates into saved lives: DMI has developed a mathematical model that predicts their campaign could save a million lives over several years, if it was rolled out across ten developing countries.

Not only that, pound-for-pound it could be as cost-effective as essential health interventions like vaccinations.

They are putting their model to the test in Burkina Faso, and early results are encouraging.

“Maize sickness”

Dinyeri Pognoagou stirs baobab leaves into a pot, while her nine children are busy ploughing the field.

Six years ago one of her sons fell ill and died.

Woman sitting in front of traditional house, with man in the background
Dinyeri Pognoagou lost her son six years ago; at the time no-one recognised the signs of malaria.

At the time, they thought his illness was “maize sickness,” says Dinyeri.

“When the maize grows, the children pick it from the trees, then they get the disease and need treatment.”

But it was malaria – the leading cause of child death in the country – that killed six-year-old Difiri.

One in 10 children in Burkina Faso dies before they reach the age of five; many of these deaths could be avoided by recognising the signs of malaria, or by adopting healthy habits like hand washing.

‘Cost-effective’

Radio Djiawoampo is Dinyeri’s local station, and is one of seven community stations involved in the child health campaign.

As well as dramas, local radio personalities broadcast adverts and live phone-ins about things like the importance of breastfeeding, or how to spot medical emergencies like pneumonia.

Man with portable radio hanging from his neck, carrying a water can in front of a mud hut
Radios are a a common sight in rural Burkina Faso, where TVs and computers are few and far between.

Radio is more cost-effective, argues DMI’s Innovation Manager Cathryn Wood, than other health initiatives like touring theatre and video screenings – which may only reach a few hundred people at a time, or poster campaigns – where illiteracy can be an obstacle.

And frequency is key in driving health messages home, she says: their minute-long health adverts are broadcast 10 times a day, while two 15-minute dramas air each weekday evening.

Solid evidence

Both funny and sad dramas have the desired effect on listeners, according to scriptwriter Patricia Ouaba.

“They say they prefer the funny ones because the ones that are so sad make them miserable […] But then we ask them – do the sad ones still help to change your behaviour? And they say yes!”

Not all behaviours are equally easy to change.”

Prof Simon CousensLondon School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

The radio team clearly believe in their ambition of improving child health.

But is it just a nice idea, or is it really having an effect on people’s habits?

“The problem with mass communication is that it can be very soft – its effects aren’t accurately measured,” says Roy Head, CEO of Development Media International.

Child mortality rates have improved in Burkina Faso in recent years, but there was no proof that it was radio making the difference, rather than other factors like better trained health workers.

So researchers from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and Centre Muraz in Burkina Faso are running a randomised control trial to determine which changes are genuinely down to the radio campaign.

Because each of the seven radio stations only transmit to a limited area, they were able to compare people within range of the broadcasts – the experimental group – with those outside the broadcast range – the control group.

They surveyed both groups before the trial started, and again after 20 months to see what difference, if any, the broadcasts had made.

There was solid evidence that they were effective – though not in every case.

“Not all behaviours are equally easy to change,” says Professor Simon Cousens, who led the research.

“One-off behaviours, like seeking care for a sick child, appear to have increased as a result of the campaign; for daily behaviours like hand washing and child feeding practices, the campaign seems to have had little or no impact so far.”

Roy Head was surprised by the results.

“We thought what people could do in their own homes would be easier to change, rather than when they needed to actually travel to a health clinic. But in fact the campaign has been much more effective at getting people to go to a clinic.”

‘Opened my eyes’

The trial’s final results are due out next year, and they will assess the reduction in child mortality during the campaign as well as behaviour changes reported by those surveyed.

If the results are what DMI hope, it would be the first time anyone has proved, definitively, that a media campaign can save children’s lives.

But Dinyeri Pognoagou already has no doubt that the radio has changed her family’s health for the better.

Four children working in a field, with a dog
Dinyeri says the radio broadcasts have helped her learn how to look after her children’s health.

They have stopped drinking water from the dam and take the long walk to the safer water of the village pump instead.

Her husband even built a toilet, after constant nagging from their children – who also listen to the radio.

And now if one of them falls sick, they go to hospital straight away.

“The radio has opened my eyes,” says Dinyeri.

“It’s like a school for me. The radio is my teacher.”

via BBC News – Radio to the rescue: saving lives via the airwaves.

Ebola outbreak: UN health worker dies in Germany hospital

The clinic for infectious diseases at St. Georg Hospital in Leipzig, Germany, 9 October 2014.
The Ebola patient was being treated at St Georg hospital in Leipzig

 

A United Nations medical worker infected with Ebola has died at a hospital in Germany.

Doctors at the hospital in Leipzig said the man, 56, originally from Sudan, died despite receiving experimental drugs to treat the virus.

The outbreak has killed more than 4,000 people since March – mostly in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea and Nigeria.

The World Health Organization says the outbreak is the “the most severe, acute health emergency in modern times”.

Elsewhere:

  • The US and UK are among countries to have introduced scanning at airports
  • A unit of Sierra Leone’s international peacekeeping force on standby for deployment in Somalia has been placed in quarantine after one member was confirmed with Ebola
  • A Spanish nurse remains in critical condition after becoming the first person to contract the disease outside of Africa last week, although doctors say there are signs of improvement
  • UN Ebola mission leader Tony Banbury has called for massive support from governments worldwide, saying: “We need everything… we need it everywhere, and we need it superfast.”
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  • Ebola patients treated outside West Africa*
  • Map showing Ebola cases treated outside West Africa
  • *In all cases but two, first in Madrid and later in Dallas, the patient was infected with Ebola while in West Africa.
  • How not to catch Ebola:
  • Avoid direct contact with sick patients as the virus is spread through contaminated body fluids
  • Wear goggles to protect eyes
  • Clothing and clinical waste should be incinerated and any medical equipment that needs to be kept should be decontaminated
  • People who recover from Ebola should abstain from sex or use condoms for three months
  • Why Ebola is so dangerous
  • How Ebola attacks
  • Ebola: Mapping the outbreak
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  • Temperature checks
  • The man had been working as a UN medical official in Liberia – one of the worst affected countries – when he caught Ebola.
  • He arrived in Germany last Thursday for treatment and was put into a hermetically sealed ward, accessed through airlock systems.
  • “Despite intensive medical measures and maximum efforts by the medical team, the 56-year-old UN employee succumbed to the serious infectious disease,” a statement from St Georg hospital said.
  • He was the second member of the UN team in Liberia to die from the virus, the BBC’s Jenny Hill in Berlin says.
  • He was the third Ebola patient to be treated for the deadly virus in Germany after contracting the disease in the outbreak zone in West Africa.
  • A health worker uses a protective suit during a presentation for the media at the international airport in Guatemala City 13 October 2014.
    Front-line health workers are at high risk of contamination
  • Passengers arrive at Terminal 1 of Heathrow Airport amid enhanced screening for Ebola on 14 October 2014.
    London’s Heathrow airport is to start screening passengers arriving from the worst affected countries
  • One patient – a Ugandan doctor infected in Sierra Leone – is still receiving treatment in a hospital in Frankfurt, while a Senegalese aid worker was released from a hospital in Hamburg after five weeks of treatment.
  • The World Health Organisation (WHO) says it is alarmed by the number of health workers who have been exposed to the disease.
  • The WHO has warned the epidemic threatens the “very survival” of societies and could lead to failed states.
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  • Ebola deaths: Confirmed, probable and suspected
  • Ebola infograph
  • Source: WHO
  • Note: figures have occasionally been revised down as suspected or probable cases are found to be unrelated to Ebola. They do not include one death in the US recorded on 8 October.
  • via BBC News – Ebola outbreak: UN health worker dies in Germany hospital.

Ebola: Heathrow to start screening passengers

Heathrow

Heathrow airport is to start screening for Ebola among passengers flying into the UK from countries at risk.

The health secretary told MPs a “handful” of cases were expected to reach the UK before Christmas.

Screening will start at Terminal 1, before being extended to other terminals, Gatwick airport and Eurostar by the end of the week.

In September, about 1,000 people arrived in the UK from Ebola-affected countries in West Africa.

Meanwhile, a UN medical official infected with Ebola while working in Liberia has died in a hospital in Germany.

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Ebola: What to do in the UK?

Ebola virus
Ebola is spreading across West Africa, but experts do not expect many cases in Europe

Symptoms of Ebola include fever, headache, vomiting, diarrhoea, bleeding – but these are similar to more common infections like flu and some stomach bugs.

If you have these symptoms and have had contact with an Ebola patient then ring 111 first, do not go directly to A&E or a GP.

If there has been no contact with Ebola then seek help from 111, your GP or A&E if necessary.

The chances of developing Ebola in the UK remain low.

Ebola screening: Will it work?

How not to catch Ebola

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Most passengers flying from Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea, where Ebola has killed more than 4,000 people, are screened before being allowed to board the plane.

Under the new UK screening measures, they will be identified by Border Force officers upon arrival. Nurses and consultants from Public Health England will then carry out the actual screening.

Passengers will have their temperatures taken, complete a risk questionnaire and have contact details recorded.

Anyone with suspected Ebola will be taken to hospital.

Passengers deemed to be at high risk due to contact with Ebola patients, but who are displaying no symptoms, will be contacted daily by Public Health England.

Heathrow Airport
It is estimated that 85% of all arrivals to the UK from affected countries will come through Heathrow

There are no direct flights to the UK from Liberia, Sierra Leone or Guinea, which means people travelling from those countries would have to catch a connecting flight to the UK and could arrive at airports that are not screening passengers.

Instead “highly visible information” will be in place at all entry points to the UK.

The Department of Health estimates that 85% of all arrivals to the UK from affected countries will come through Heathrow.

BBC transport correspondent Richard Westcott said there was one flight on Tuesday which would have been subjected to the new screening measures.

It was the Brussels Airlines flight which left Liberia for Brussels on Monday night, with transfers coming into Heathrow at 09.30 BST on Tuesday.

The screening will be extended to Terminal 2 on Wednesday, and rolled out to the other three terminals by the end of the week, our correspondent added.

“There is currently no screening at Brussels and Paris where most direct flights from the affected area will land or transfer to the UK,” he said.

ITV correspondent Neil Connery flew into Heathrow from Brussels on Tuesday morning and said he was asked at border control where his journey had started.

“A small team of border officials wearing blue protective glovesquestioned some passengers upon Lhr arrival,” he tweeted.

The Independent’s travel editor Simon Calder said three airlines were operating out of the three most-affected countries – Air France, Royal Air Maroc and Brussels Airlines – and there were only a handful of flights a week.

‘Low-risk people’

Screening arrivals marks a rapid shift in policy from the UK government.

Last week, it said there were no plans for screening as people were tested before leaving affected countries.

The WHO said it was unnecessary and that it would mean screening “huge numbers of low-risk people”.

In the Commons on Monday, Health Secretary Jeremy Hunt said the UK needed to prepare for the situation deteriorating in West Africa.

He said: “[The chief medical officer] confirms that the public health risk in the UK remains low and measures currently in place, including exit screening in all three affected countries, offer the correct level of protection.

“However, whilst the response to global health emergencies should always be proportionate, she also advises the government to make preparations for a possible increase in the risk level.”

Mr Hunt added that tackling the outbreak in Africa was the “single most important way” of preventing Ebola arriving in the UK.

Undated picture issued by MoD showing RFA Argus's Chief Officer Shane Wood (left) checking the first load of supplies for its deployment to Sierra Leone
RFA Argus is moored in Falmouth, Cornwall, and is preparing to sail to Sierra Leone

The UK government has pledged £125m “to help contain, control, treat and defeat Ebola”, hundreds of NHS staff have volunteered to travel to West Africa and 750 troops have been deployed to help build treatment centres and provide logistical support.

The UK’s casualty vessel RFA Argus, which has a fully-equipped hospital, is expected to set sail for Sierra Leone later this week. It will not be used to treat Ebola-infected patients but mainly to ferry kit and people.

Isolation units

There is no cure or vaccine for Ebola, which is transmitted through sweat, blood and saliva.

Anyone in the UK with suspected Ebola will be taken to hospital and blood samples will be taken to Public Health England’s specialist laboratory for rapid testing.

If the test is positive, then the patient will be transferred to an isolation unit at the Royal Free Hospital in London. It is the centre that cared for the British nurse William Pooley, who contracted Ebola in West Africa.

The isolation unit at The Royal Free Hospital
The specialist isolation unit at London’s Royal Free Hospital

Hospitals in Newcastle, Liverpool and Sheffield are on standby to offer similar facilities if there is a sudden surge in Ebola cases. A total of 26 isolation beds could be prepared at the four hospitals.

Shadow health secretary Andy Burnham told BBC Radio 5 live that introducing screening “was the right thing to do” based on advice from the chief medical officer.

He said there was a shortage of the experimental drug ZMapp, which has been used to treat Ebola patients, and more should be done to expand the manufacturing capacity.

via BBC News – Ebola: Heathrow to start screening passengers.

抗癌超級水果 香蕉火龍果施魔法

來坊間盛傳吃香蕉與火龍果可抗癌,甚至直指黑皮香蕉表皮上黑斑愈多,因為免疫活性愈高,所以抗癌效果就愈好;還有營養價值十分豐富的火龍果,抗癌魔力又藏在哪裡?這些說法正確性如何?

癌症就像一種慢性病,而抗癌必須從平日健康保養起,並不是單吃某一種水果就如同仙丹妙藥一般,可以有效抗癌。

癌症就像一種慢性病,而抗癌必須從平日健康保養起,並不是單吃某一種水果就如同仙丹妙藥一般,可以有效抗癌。

【香蕉抗癌】

香蕉抗癌有此一說,根據山東理工大學兼任教授黃衍強中醫師在其「你不可不知的防癌抗癌100招」一書中提到,香蕉萃取物能有效抑制黃麴黴B1,以及苯並芘等致癌物的功能。

黃麴黴B1常見於產生黴變的乾糧中,如花生米、水果乾、起司等,而苯並芘則是在烤肉中常見的致癌物,也有可能在咖啡烘焙的過程中跑出來。民眾很有可能在不自覺的情況下將這些致癌物吃進肚,而香蕉就是民眾最方便的自然食療。

香蕉萃取物能有效抑制黃麴黴B1,以及苯並芘等致癌物的功能。

香蕉萃取物能有效抑制黃麴黴B1,以及苯並芘等致癌物的功能。

【營養師建議】:

中山醫學大學副校長、營養學系教授王進崑指出,關於坊間盛傳長黑斑的香蕉更具抗癌功效此說法,其實尚未有實驗證明,雖然香蕉有助抑制黃麴黴B1的功能,但是不是多吃就更有用。他提醒,一根180公克的熱量約120大卡,相當於半碗白飯。而成熟的香蕉有較多的纖維,有助於排便,不讓有毒物囤積於腸道內而在成熟的過程中,但是在成熟的過程中,香蕉中的澱粉會被轉化為糖份,多吃對於體重恐造成負擔。

另外,香蕉內的鉀離子高,患有腎功能代謝不全的病人,勿攝取過量。

火龍果含有大量具解毒功能的花青素,能夠消除活性氧、抑制癌細胞生長。

火龍果含有大量具解毒功能的花青素,能夠消除活性氧、抑制癌細胞生長。

【火龍果抗癌】

根據國內腫瘤科顏榮郎醫師所著《抗癌就像減肥》書中所介紹,火龍果含有大量具解毒功能的花青素苷,最難得的是其含量甚至比葡萄皮、紅甜菜都還要多。花青素苷進入腸道後,才會成為活化型的花青素,在這個型態下,便能夠消除活性氧、抑制癌細胞生長、促進癌細胞凋亡。此外,花青素也有護眼、預防失智功能。

另外,火龍果有高纖維的果肉,能促進腸胃蠕動,幫助排便。而且它的植物性蛋白質更能夠吸附一些重金屬,透過糞便排出體外。

【營養師建議】:

紅肉的火龍果內有更多的花青素,民眾可以優先選擇。火龍果因為熱量低、又高纖,非常適合患有肥胖、糖尿病、高血壓的患者食用。但是火龍果也屬寒性水果,寒性體質的人不宜多吃。

【健康小叮嚀】:

王進崑教授也提醒,癌症就像一種慢性病,而抗癌必須從平日健康保養起,並不是單吃某一種水果就如同仙丹妙藥一般,可以有效抗癌。反而,民眾應該以「三碗蔬菜、兩碗水果」的均衡五蔬果飲食法為原則,切勿過度依賴單一食材,因為物極必反,倘若一股腦吃香蕉,恐攝取過多的糖或澱粉,反而造成肥胖、誘發更多疾病。

至於火龍果也不適合年長者或是體質較虛寒的人吃。從中醫的角度來看,身體調節能力較差的人,若過度進食寒性水果,則反倒容易疲倦、感到虛寒、精神不好,或容易造成腹瀉。而西醫則認為火龍果中的果膠能促進腸胃蠕動,吃過多會產生拉肚子現象。

王進崑教授奉勸大家牢記「抗癌無妙方,水果要混搭」的保健口訣,選用當季、在地的水果,才能吃得新鮮、顧健康。

(關鍵字: 癌症 , 火龍果 , 香蕉 , 抗癌飲食

via 抗癌超級水果 香蕉火龍果施魔法 | 20141014 | 華人健康網.

油害傷身!三色豆煮生薑可解毒

質油和餿水油連環爆,民眾聞油色變。中醫師表示,油害傷身屬於慢性中毒的一種,普遍沒有明顯症狀,但毒物長期積存人體,恐會破壞消化系統的平衡,影響排便習慣,嚴重甚至導致癌症,建議除了選擇天然食物以降低病從口入的機會,平常三餐飯後可來一碗三色豆煮生薑的甜湯,幫助解毒和排毒。

豆類食物的外皮有清熱解毒的作用,適合做為日常解毒和排毒之用。

豆類食物的外皮有清熱解毒的作用,適合做為日常解毒和排毒之用。

餿水油3毒害!脾胃傷害首當其衝

食用毒油為病從口入,脾胃受害首當其衝,除非馬上發生急性腸胃炎,否則不會產生立即危害,而是長期積存在人體,牽扯到的層面很廣泛,從皮膚到肝腎功能甚至癌症都可能發生。

童綜合醫院中醫科醫師陳彥仁表示,再製餿水油大致上有三類毒害,第一是細菌、黴菌污染引發黃麴毒素,容易造成肝硬化、肝癌;第二是砷、鉛、鎘等重金屬污染,導致皮膚、肝、腎、神經病變;第三是過氧化物、醛銅類等毒物,輕則腸胃炎,重則有肝腎毒性甚至致癌。

中醫排油毒3法:汗、吐、下

陳彥仁中醫師指出,食用毒油可謂為中毒,邪毒入身時,儘速排出方為上策,中醫排毒稱為「去邪」,有「汗、吐、下」三種方式。「汗法」是使用麻黃劑系列的發汗解表藥來幫助發汗,將毒素藉著汗液帶出體外,但是發汗太過會損傷正氣,反而不利身體復原,必須依體質調整。

餿水油的食安問題波及全國店家和攤販,民眾談油時怒氣沖沖。本圖僅為油炸食物的示意圖。

餿水油的食安問題波及全國店家和攤販,民眾談油時怒氣沖沖。本圖僅為油炸食物的示意圖。

「吐法」則是利用催吐的方法將不小心吃進體內的毒素排出,不過現代中醫較少使用。「下法」則是從大小便排毒,以餿水油造成的腸胃問題為例,中醫會使用大黃、芒硝、番瀉葉等瀉下劑,讓已經吃下肚的毒物快速離開腸道,以免被腸道吸收積存體內甚至直接損傷腸胃道,如果平常排便較不正常,更要注重改善消化系統,以免排便機制發揮不了排毒功能。

汗、吐、下的排毒治療都需經由醫師診斷,依個人體質調整才能進行處置,民眾適度排汗並且補充水分,有助於避免邪毒聚積。

簡易解毒法!紅綠黃豆煮生薑

除了多喝水、排汗和中藥排毒治療之外,陳彥仁中醫師建議,擔心自己吃到劣質油的民眾,也可以在三餐飯後,各喝1碗紅豆湯或綠豆湯幫助解毒;若是腸胃功能不好的人,則可用等量的紅豆、綠豆和黃豆,加上2至3片生薑片一起煮,餐後當甜品食用,就是最簡單的解毒方法。

陳彥仁中醫師建議,擔心劣質油毒素蓄積在體內的民眾,可用紅豆或綠豆煮生薑,飯後一碗有助解毒。(圖片提供/童綜合醫院)

陳彥仁中醫師建議,擔心劣質油毒素蓄積在體內的民眾,可用紅豆或綠豆煮生薑,飯後一碗有助解毒。(圖片提供/童綜合醫院)

紅豆、綠豆和黃豆的外皮有清熱解毒的作用,但豆子本身有植物性蛋白質和澱粉,中醫師建議民眾不要浪費任何一點營養成分,全部吃光光。但若是怕胖的人,煮豆時應小心豆皮破裂,煮好喝湯就好。

值得注意的是,三色豆甜薑湯的解毒效果緩慢,若民眾出現上吐下瀉、頭暈頭痛、噁心發燒等疑似食物中毒的現象,應趕緊就醫,以免毒素侵害身體。

(關鍵字: 排毒 , 解毒 , 餿水油 , 陳彥仁

via 油害傷身!三色豆煮生薑可解毒 | 20141014 | 華人健康網.

逆轉慢性疲勞!戒7大飲食壞習慣

班族一身的疲勞和痠痛,都是繁重工作量所帶來的?營養師表示,上班族長期飲食不當,才是造成疲勞的元兇,若輕忽健康飲食的重要性,長期且持續累積的疲勞,不僅可能引發內分泌系統失調,出現各種不適,更容易導致肌纖維痛症候群、慢性疲勞症候群等難纏身心症。

許多上班族認為疲勞是繁重的工作量所致,但錯誤的飲食方式也會讓人越來越疲憊,甚至引發身心症。

許多上班族認為疲勞是繁重的工作量所致,但錯誤的飲食方式也會讓人越來越疲憊,甚至引發身心症。

台中慈濟醫院營養師楊忠偉指出,許多上班族下班後的樂趣之一,就是和客戶或好友聚餐,大啖快炒或宵夜,吃得愈多、疲勞愈不易消除,甚至漸漸成為一種常態。而若符合以下7個錯誤飲食方式的一半以上,就屬於偏食、脂肪攝取過多,維生素和礦物質不足的狀態,若不盡快改正,就等於給疲勞慢慢侵蝕健康的機會。

【7大錯誤飲食習慣】

  1. 外食比例高或愛吃高熱量、高脂肪食物。
  2. 嗜吃紅肉內臟、帶殼海鮮,高纖飲食嚴重缺乏。
  3. 每天最後一餐的進食時間超過晚上8點,甚至愛吃鹽酥雞、洋芋片等高熱量食物當宵夜,作為加班的心理補償。
  4. 三餐不定時,常省略早餐。
  5. 常喝含糖飲料。
  6. 食量大。
  7. 常吃宵夜。
    楊忠偉營養師表示,想要消除疲勞,再忙也一定要確保飲食均衡,且每餐都要有蔬果的攝取。(圖片提供/台中慈濟醫院)

    楊忠偉營養師表示,想要消除疲勞,再忙也一定要確保飲食均衡,且每餐都要有蔬果的攝取。(圖片提供/台中慈濟醫院)

    再忙也要飲食均衡!6大營養素抗疲勞

    楊忠偉營養師表示,上班族想消除疲勞、預防疾病,再忙也一定要確保飲食均衡,每天攝取六大類食物,包括:五穀根莖類、奶製品、豆魚肉蛋類、各色蔬果及適量油脂,且儘量每一餐有蔬果攝取。蔬果除高纖、低熱量、無脂肪,還富含有益心血管的營養素如鉀、鎂、鈣等。

    遠離疲勞危機,規律運動、良好睡眠、良好的生活作息習慣和飲食習慣,缺一不可。但若因工作關係,不得不熬夜或壓力特別大時,可適度補充維生素B、C、E、鋅、鐵,以及色胺酸類食物,幫助調節生理機能,消除疲勞。

    【6大抗疲勞營養素】

    1. 維生素B群:B群能促進身體的新陳代謝,協助能量釋放的輔因子,讓人體充滿活力,五穀米、糙米、燕麥等非精緻主食或豆製品有豐富的維生素B群,建議每日至少一餐高纖主食。
    2. 維生素C:長期壓力易使身體的免疫系統下降,維生素C可增進白血球之活力,增強免疫功能,是人體不可或缺的抗壓營養素,平常可多從高維生素含量的芭樂、奇異果或小蕃茄等蔬果中補充。
    3. 維生素E:可從堅果、核桃、開心果等種子類食物中補充,一份大約10公克。
    4. 鋅:含鋅食物包括堅果、南瓜籽、黃豆。
    5. 鐵:參與能量代謝,不足時會影響氧氣輸送,使身體含氧量下降,產生疲勞。含鐵的食物來源,包括深綠色或紅色的蔬菜、堅果類、豆製品和紅豆。
    6. 富含色胺酸食物:色胺酸可在腦中產生血清素,血清素為腦中「幸福分子」之一,可促進積極正面的想法,食物來源包括香蕉、乳製品、豆腐皮、堅果類等。

    (關鍵字: 上班族 , 疲勞 , 痠痛 , 楊忠偉

via 逆轉慢性疲勞!戒7大飲食壞習慣 | 20141014 | 華人健康網.

寶寶體型v.s尿布選擇大公開

![選擇符合C型新生兒體工學尿布,寶寶滿意,媽媽開心! (137×92)][66871]

究竟新手爸媽們該怎麼做,才能解決寶寶噓噓便便外漏的問題,又能讓寶寶健康的成長呢?其實寶貝的第一件尿布,學問可是很大的喔!現在讓專業的醫生來告訴您…。

選擇符合C型新生兒體工學尿布,寶寶滿意,媽媽開心!

選擇符合C型新生兒體工學尿布,寶寶滿意,媽媽開心!

(關鍵字: 寶寶 , 尿布 , 體型 , 噓噓 , 外漏

via 寶寶體型v.s尿布選擇大公開 | 20141009 | 華人健康網.

55+ hours of work a week increases diabetes risk

Those who work long hours had 30% increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, says expert. --Filepic

Those who work long hours had 30% increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, says expert. –Filepic

People in low-paying jobs may be at higher risk of developing diabetes if they work long hours, suggests a new analysis.

Low-income workers were more likely to develop type-2 diabetes if they put in more than 55 hours per week than if they worked normal hours, researchers found. Work hours weren’t tied to increased diabetes risks among wealthier people, however.

One possible reason for this is that working long hours displaces health-restorative activities, in particular physical activity, sufficient sleep and healthy diet,” says expert. – Filepic

“Those who worked long hours in these jobs had 30% increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes,” says Mika Kivimäki, the study’s lead author from the UK’s University College London.

“One possible reason for this is that working long hours displaces health-restorative activities, in particular physical activity, sufficient sleep and healthy diet,” says Kivimäki.

Type-2 diabetes, sometimes referred to as adult-onset diabetes, occurs when the body’s cells are resistant to the hormone insulin, or the body doesn’t make enough of it. Insulin gives blood sugar access to the body’s cells to be used as fuel.

According to the latest National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011, Malaysia has 15.2% or 2.6 million of adults 18 years and above have diabetes.

In 16 years, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the US estimates that 7.7% of the world population, or 439 million adults would live with diabetes. NCBI also predict that there will be a sharp rise of 69% of adults in developing countries.

Previous studies suggested that working long hours is tied to an increased risk of developing diabetes, but more recent research had suggested the link is only true among the poorest workers, Kivimäki and his colleagues write in The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology.

Researchers find that low-income workers and those who work long hour face a higher risk of diabetes. In Malaysia, the National Health and Morbidity Survey finds that 2.6 million of adults 18 years and above have diabetes. – Filepic

For the analysis, they combined data from four previously published studies and 19 unpublished studies that looked at working long hours, which they defined as 55 hours or more per week, and the risk of developing diabetes.

The studies included more than 200,000 people, who were followed for an average of seven years, from the US, Japan, Australia and several European countries.

Out of every 10,000 study participants, about 29 developed diabetes each year during the study.

Overall, when the researchers compared people who worked long hours to people who worked a standard 35 to 40-hour work week, they found similar diabetes risks in both groups.

But when they focused on people who worked long hours, they saw a difference by wealth class.

Specifically, among every 10,000 of the lowest-paid workers, there were 13 extra cases of diabetes each year among those who worked longer hours, compared to those who worked normal hours.

There was no increased risk among the wealthiest people who worked long hours.

While the new study can’t prove working long hours leads to diabetes among poor workers, Kivimäki says that it’s good for health professionals to know of the link.

“Well targeted prevention and early diagnosis can reduce the number of diabetes cases and lower rates of developing complications,” he says.

The study hopes to prompt policy-makers and employers to think of ways the workplace can support healthy lifestyles. – Filepic

Orfeu Buxton, a researcher with The Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and Cassandra Okechukwu, a researcher from Harvard School of Public Health in Boston, suggest in a commentary accompanying the new analysis that the increased risk among the poorest group may stem from working longer shifts, late nights or split shifts that disrupt the body’s so-called clocks – known as circadian rhythms.

“It’s not the work hours themselves directly that are necessarily toxic – it’s what they create or cause,” says Buxton.

Circadian rhythms can slow down metabolism and cause the pancreas to secrete less insulin after meals, he said. This can lead to diabetes in some people.

“We don’t think that everybody faces the same risks,” Buxton says, adding that some people can handle long hours and shift work, but others may have problems within a few weeks.

Kivimäki says he hopes the study will prompt policy-makers and employers to think of ways the workplace can support healthy lifestyles. He also said there are a few ways individuals can lower their risks of developing diabetes.

“Diabetes prevention guidelines emphasise that 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on most days and a healthy diet can substantially reduce the risk of developing type-2 diabetes,” he says.

Losing weight is also an excellent way of lowering diabetes risk, he says. – Reuters

via 55+ hours of work a week increases diabetes risk – Health | The Star Online.

Health Ministry preparing to fight Ebola in case of an outbreak

health-ministry-preparing-to-fight-ebola-in-case-of-an-outbreak

NEW DELHI: A day after the United States confirmed the first case of Ebola transmission on American soil, which led to fear mongering across the world, the Health Ministry held a meeting on Monday to review its preparedness to screen passengers at airports and contain the deadly disease in case of an outbreak.

The government also came out with a statement reassuring that it has “strengthened” its preparedness and is planning “specific training exercises on surveillance and response  ..

via Health Ministry preparing to fight Ebola in case of an outbreak – The Economic Times.

UKM: Solving local medical issues through needs-driven R&D

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Research and development (R&D) of medical devices at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) is taking on a more needs driven approach lately, with the emphasis being on solving daily issues faced by local medical practitioners at the UKM Medical Centre (PPUKM).

“We teach them how to screen through the issues, perform a needs analysis and so they are able to pick a project and systematically follow certain guidelines to solve a particular problem,” says Professor Ismail Mohd Saiboon, senior consultant in emergency medicine and trauma orthopaedics and head of the department of emergency medicine at PPUKM.

The method being used to generate such innovative solutions is based on theStanford Biodesign programme.

Under this technique, the focus of innovators would be on what is known as unmet clinical needs.

Researchers start off by identifying problems through observation of real life scenarios.
Then, desired outcomes or solutions that best solve those problems are determined through a combination of research and brainstorming sessions. The latter is enhanced through bringing together the rich experiences of a diverse group of experts in various fields.

“The idea… is to promote the knowledge of how to innovate and identify how to best choose projects so they have a higher chance of commercialisation,” says Professor Edmond Zahedi, associate professor at the department of electronics, electrical and system engineering at UKM.

Among the issues that Ismail hopes to see addressed is the need for a patient tracking system and a system which reports on the availability of hospital beds.

“Patients sometimes end up in the emergency ward for a long time as we search for beds. The current system doesn’t give you a real-time update of the status of beds,” he says.

As for tracking patients, he looks forward to having a device where it would warn relevant patients against leaving their beds while alerting hospital staff should the patient go against this advice.

The reason for a greater emphasis on studying local needs is so that medical innovations at UKM are better suited to the Malaysian context.

“A lot of times, we would buy equipment from overseas which is very costly. It is also often not appropriate for our culture,” explains Dr Hasherah Mohd Ibrahim, speech language pathologist and head of the speech sciences programme at UKM.

Diverse pool of experience 

A recent event organised by UKM known as the Healthcare Technology Innovation (HTI) workshop illustrated this approach by calling together a multidisciplinary group comprising engineers, medical staff, IT experts as well as students to work on developing a few solutions to these existing problems.

“The HTI committee underwent a fact finding mission a few months before this workshop,” explains Professor Dr Ismail Mohd Saiboon, senior consultant in emergency medicine, trauma orthopaedics and head of the emergency medicine department at PPUKM.

“Basically we got all our staff to write down the problems they faced in their day-to-day job and we collected those information. So those are the problems being looked at here at the HTI workshop and hopefully this will help us to come up with innovative solutions that will yield results.”

“Most of the needs came from the health sciences,” shares Dr Gan Kok Beng, senior lecturer and research fellow from the engineering and built environment faculty at UKM. “We introduced them to rapid prototyping and mechanical prototyping techniques so they would know how to realise their ideas within a very short period.”

Through their participation in the HTI workshop, Dr Hasherah and team hopes to develop a portable device that can be used for therapy for children with cleft lip and palate.

“We would like to design a tool that parents can use to improve their child’s speech at home,” she says. “We are thinking systematically through how feasible it would be to produce this device by looking at market analysis and things we’ve learned through the workshop.”

Dr Hasherah adds that this would be really helpful for her profession as there are currently very few speech language therapists throughout the country, with their numbers totalling only around 250 nationwide. Hence, the development of such a device would certainly relieve the challenges faced by therapists in catering to the needs of all their patients.

“Children with cleft palate usually have problems producing speech clearly and will sound very hypernasal. The device we’re trying to develop will measure the clarity of their speech and give them real-time feedback on whether they are speaking correctly or not,” she says.

Besides this, another team who participated in the HTI workshop intends to design virtual reality games that can be used for physiological rehabilitation.

“There are a lot of challenges in rehabilitation and I think one of the solutions is technology because it saves manpower, cost, time and we’ve enough evidence to show that virtual reality is beneficial for our patients,” says Dr Devinder Kaur, head of the physiotherapy programme, school of rehabilitation sciences at UKM.

“It’s more motivating for patients when they can be immersed in a virtual reality environment and do things on their own whilst getting feedback on their actions. We hope to see at least one to two tasks applied into virtual reality so we can use it for rehabilitation purposes.”

She adds that virtual reality is a good place for patients, especially those with disabilities, to learn new skills or movements as they will remain safe throughout the exercise. What they have learned through virtual reality can then later be transferred to real life.

Learning from others:Professor Edmond Zahediholds up a book on the Biodesign concept. This methodology, which was used by UKM in the HTI workshop, originated from Stanford University.
Recognising ideas

This was the second time that the HTI workshop was being organised at UKM. This time around, there were a total of six groups who participated, covering a wide range of issues which, in addition to what was already mentioned, also included patient handling, emergency medicine and patients’ records management.

A winning team was selected at the end of the workshop and the award was presented to the team facilitated by Dr Devinder, who came up with a weight bearing and posture alignment feedback system for use in physiological rehabilitation.

The idea originated from Dr Nor Azlin Mohd Nordin who is from the school of rehabilitation sciences, faculty of health sciences at UKM.

Other team members were Dr Chai Siaw Chui, who is also from the school of rehabilitation sciences at UKM; associate professor Dr Maryati Mohd Yusof from the faculty of information science and technology, UKM; Cho Zin Myint, PhD student from the electrical and computer engineering faculty in Curtin University, Sarawak; and Abdul Radhi Azli Ali and Abdullah Syafiq Abdul Salam, who are both final year students at the department of electronics, electrical and system engineering, faculty of engineering and built environment in UKM.

via UKM: Solving local medical issues through needs-driven R&D – Tech News | The Star Online.

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