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Archive for February, 2014

寶寶飲食地雷 1歲前少碰3類食物

寶寶一歲前腸胃還很脆弱,從6個月後副食品的選擇也要多加注意。
寶寶一歲前腸胃還很脆弱,從6個月後副食品的選擇也要多加注意。

 

剛誕生的小baby就像天使一樣可愛,但是這樣脆弱的小生命,需要爸媽的百般呵護與細心照料,才能安全長大,根據美國兒科學會(APP)建議,嬰兒出生6個月內哺餵母乳,是最好的方式,而過了6個月之後,漸漸可以開始食用其他東西,這時爸媽也會開始頭痛,究竟哪一些食物寶寶可以吃,哪一些又是不能碰的地雷呢?

根據美國兒科學會給予的建議,嬰兒最好自4~6個月大起,再開始食用副食品。因為此時消化系統的發育已有基本能力,家長可以準備流質、糊狀至泥狀的食品餵食。不但可以補充額外營養,還能訓練寶寶吞嚥和咀嚼的能力。

不過,雖然可以開始進食其他東西,仍要注意要以「全熟」的食物為主,特別是肉類、肝臟、魚、蛋或海鮮等食物,才能避免一不小心讓寶寶感染到細菌,造成拉肚子的症狀。

一歲前寶寶最好還是以母乳或配方奶為主,鮮奶含有大量腸胃尚無法吸收的酪蛋白大分子。

一歲前寶寶最好還是以母乳或配方奶為主,鮮奶含有大量腸胃尚無法吸收的酪蛋白大分子。

 

【1歲前寶寶 三大常見飲食地雷】

1.想讓小寶寶喝最營養的鮮奶?反而易消化不良

1歲前的小孩儘量別飲用鮮奶。美國小兒科健康兒童網站指出,鮮奶中含有多種礦物質及蛋白質,像是結構較大的酪蛋白分子,但1歲前的寶寶腸胃功能還無法完全分解、吸收,且腸道分泌的乳糖酵素仍不足以分解乳糖,恐怕反而容易造成疾病或產生不適症狀。美國兒科學會建議家長,也別給小嬰兒飲用果汁,其中含有高量糖份,對於寶寶的腸胃吸收也會造成影響。

2.蜂蜜營養高又甜甜的,寶寶最愛?小心病菌感染

蜂蜜、玉米糖漿不建議讓1歲以下小孩食用。蜂蜜在製造過程中為了避免營養成份遭到破壞,因此沒有經過高溫殺菌消毒的程序,有可能存有肉毒桿菌感染的危機,而1歲以下的寶寶免疫系統及腸道菌叢都未發育齊全,感染風險更高。不過1歲之後的寶寶,倒是可以讓他們吃點蜂蜜,因為蜂蜜富含許多天然微量元素,還能幫助寶寶排軟便,避免便祕危機。

3.花生醬寶寶應該也可以吃?恐有過敏危機

小嬰兒最好避免食用花生醬。家中有過敏家族病史,要小心孩子可能也會有同樣的過敏原。在食物的方面,花生就是一大過敏因子,且堅硬的花生乾果類,小孩子本就不易入口,加上花生本身含有花生油酸,會促進人體易發炎的症狀,因此小嬰兒最好避免食用這類堅硬又有過敏因子的食物。

via 寶寶飲食地雷 1歲前少碰3類食物 | 20140227 | 華人健康網.

拔牙傷口久不癒 恐是齒齦癌找上身

每個人都有過拔牙的經驗,但牙醫師提醒若拔牙傷口久久難以癒合且疼痛,可能是非典型齒齦癌的早期症狀。

每個人都有過拔牙的經驗,但牙醫師提醒若拔牙傷口久久難以癒合且疼痛,可能是非典型齒齦癌的早期症狀。

 

 拔牙經驗人人有,通常忍耐個幾天,傷口就會癒合、不再疼痛,但有一名60歲男性患者,因牙周病拔牙,傷口卻持續疼痛一個月且無法充分癒合,影響食慾和生活品質,到醫院做詳細檢查發現牙齦上有異常黏膜腫塊,經過切片化驗後確定罹患「非典型齒齦癌」。

初期症狀不明顯 齒齦癌易誤認牙周病

台中榮民總醫院口腔醫學部主治醫師程稚盛表示,在台灣每10位罹患口腔癌的病患中,就有1位惡性腫瘤生長在齒齦部位,僅次於頰黏膜癌和舌癌。而牙齦部位的結構特殊,早期的齒齦癌經常表現為牙痛、牙齦紅腫、牙齒動搖及齒槽骨破壞等,症狀與一般牙周病類似,常被錯誤診斷。

對口腔癌病患而言,如何早期確診口腔病變和發現病灶是治療成功的決定因素之一,但臨床醫師常因一些非典型症狀,難以適時發現惡性的黏膜變化。而「拔牙後傷口癒合不良」就是「非典型齒齦癌」的初期表徵,難以和牙周病作鑑別,經常需等到患者拔牙後出現傷口久不癒合,且腫瘤從傷口處生成時,才警覺為口腔癌。

齒齦癌的牙痛、牙齦紅腫、牙齒動搖及齒槽骨破壞等症狀,與牙周病類似,臨床難以鑑別。

齒齦癌的牙痛、牙齦紅腫、牙齒動搖及齒槽骨破壞等症狀,與牙周病類似,臨床難以鑑別。

 

統計:1/3齒齦癌從拔牙傷口處生成

根據台中榮民總醫院口腔醫學部近15年的統計資料,約三分之一的齒齦癌患者表示口腔腫瘤皆從拔牙傷口處生成,且這類患者呈現高比例的骨質破壞。

程稚盛牙醫師提醒,民眾若警覺拔牙後傷口久久難以癒合、拔牙後齒槽骨持續疼痛或麻木、有異常腫塊自拔牙傷口處生成時,非常有可能罹患「非典型齒齦癌」,應及時就醫,尋求專科的協助,接受適當的治療,以免耽誤病情。

【小辭典/齒齦癌】

齒齦癌屬於口腔癌種類的一種,80%病灶位置來自於下牙齦,60%來自於臼齒區,病因與口腔衛生不良、齲齒、長期潰瘍、感染和不潔物的刺激有關,若出現牙齦局部紅腫、搔癢、碰觸性出血,甚至牙齒鬆動、上或下頜骨疼痛,一定要有所警惕。齒齦癌經口腔X光片與電腦斷層檢查,可以辨別腫瘤是否侵犯至下頷骨,中晚期發生淋巴轉移的機會為15至20%。治療應視腫瘤的大小、位置、生長型態與頸部淋巴結狀態,採行合適的治療。

via 拔牙傷口久不癒 恐是齒齦癌找上身 | 20140227 | 華人健康網.

中醫助好眠!首選紅棗酸棗仁安眠飲

紅棗能補中益氣、鎮靜安神,能緩解失眠種狀。(圖片/華人健康網資料)

紅棗能補中益氣、鎮靜安神,能緩解失眠種狀。(圖片華人健康網資料)

 在台灣有1/4人口飽受失眠困擾,不僅影響生活品質,更會增加慢性病和癌症疾病的風險。臨床發現,中醫有許多放鬆入眠的好方法,不一定要藉助西藥幫助入睡,在家按摩「三陰交」等穴位,或是服用紅棗酸棗仁安眠飲,都是不錯的方法。

中醫師吳明珠指出,失眠是中醫門診常見的疾病之一,青年學子、更年期婦女或老年人等各個年齡層都可能會出現。臨床證實,長期的失眠,會造成脾氣暴躁、白天疲倦、頭痛頭暈、胸悶心悸、注意力無法集中,對於工作品質及人際關係都是一大危害。

臨床觀察並發現,現代人常因工作等因素,時常熬夜或日夜顛倒,生理時鐘亂了調,或是老人家生理機能退化,都很容易造成失眠,因此推薦患者及親朋好友,透過藥膳茶飲,幫助調理體質,遠離失眠。

【紅棗酸棗仁安眠飲】:

1.作法:準備3錢的酸棗仁、茯苓、枸杞,加上1錢的甘草與3至5枚的紅棗,以1000.CC的水煮成700.CC,當作日常茶飲飲用即可。

2.禁忌:有胃食道逆流症狀的患者睡前不適合喝。

3.功效:紅棗能補中益氣、鎮靜安神,酸棗仁有補肝腎、養血的功效,茯苓能健脾、安神,枸杞也可以滋腎,調和藥物、矯正性味。

4.叮嚀:喝紅棗酸棗仁茶主要能調理體質、助眠,但是要有良好的睡眠品質,生活習慣還是要保持規律、避免熬夜。

三陰交是肝經、脾經、腎經三條足部陰經的交會穴,能改善失眠多夢症狀。(圖片/華人健康網資料)

三陰交是肝經、脾經、腎經三條足部陰經的交會穴,能改善失眠多夢症狀。(圖片/華人健康網資料)

 

中醫師吳明珠指出,不論是何種證型,失眠主要都是心、脾、腎三臟虛損所引起,在中醫處方上,皆以養心安神為主,可取心經原穴神門或耳神門來調理心氣、寧心安神,或選用三陰交穴來協調肝、脾、腎的氣機。其次,再依據病情不同作詳細的辨證用藥,臨床大都能達到滿意的療效。

◎穴道按摩◎:

每天早晚各按摩穴道30次,每次1分鐘。如遇失眠時,可自行在家按壓的穴道如下:

1.【三陰交穴】:緩解失眠多夢。**

  • 位置:在足內踝上3寸(約四指幅寬度) ,小腿脛骨內側後方凹陷處。
  • 功效:三陰交是肝經、脾經、腎經三條足部陰經的交會穴,可以促進血液及淋巴循環,有調和氣血的作用,還能調理更年期失調,改善失眠多夢症狀。

2.【耳神門穴】:平息焦慮助好眠。

  • 位置:穴位位在耳朵上方三角窩的地方。
  • 功效:可安定神經、促進血液循環,可起到寧心安神的作用,改善失眠焦慮症狀。

《抗失眠 4小撇步》

1.生活:晚餐後禁止喝茶、咖啡、可樂,或含有巧克力的飲料。

2.作息:避免日夜顛倒或作息不正常。

3.睡前:避免吃甜食、油膩食物或寒冷的瓜果,像西瓜、哈密瓜、木瓜等,恐引起腹痛、腹脹而失眠。

4.運動:保持運動的習慣或靜坐,都能安定神經,增強免疫能力。

via 中醫助好眠!首選紅棗酸棗仁安眠飲 | 20140227 | 華人健康網.

Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month returns in March

Faecal occult blood test kit. (TODAY Photo)

 

Younger Singaporeans have been urged to encourage their loved ones above the age of 50 to go for colorectal cancer screenings.

SINGAPORE: Younger Singaporeans have been urged to encourage their loved ones above the age of 50 to go for colorectal cancer screenings.

Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month returns this March and the campaign’s organisers, the Singapore Cancer Society (SCS), want to highlight that the risk increases for those over 50.

The SCS will also be teaming up with Moulmein-Kallang GRC to educate their residents about the disease.

As part of the campaign, free colorectal screening kits will be distributed at all SingHealth and National Healthcare Group Polyclinics next month.

They will also be made available at SCS offices at Bishan and Realty Centre, as well as 73 selected Guardian Health and Beauty Outlets.

Dr Cheong Wai Kit, chairman of Colorectal Cancer Awareness Campaign, said he had four important messages – that colorectal cancer is a number one cancer in Singapore among men and women; that colorectal cancer can be prevented through screening; if the cancer is detected early through screening, it can be cured; and that screening saves lives.

– CNA/de

via Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month returns in March – Channel NewsAsia.

Cambodia bans smoking shisha and e-cigarettes


File photo: A person holds an electronic cigarette. (AFP/FRANCK FIFE)

Cambodia has banned e-cigarettes and shisha pipes, saying the increasingly popular products contain damaging levels of nicotine and are leading young people to take up smoking.

PHNOM PENH: Cambodia has banned e-cigarettes and shisha pipes, saying the increasingly popular products contain damaging levels of nicotine and are leading young people to take up smoking.

The National Authority for Combating Drugs (NACD) ordered authorities to immediately cease the import, use and sale of shisha tobacco and pipes and e-cigarettes across the country, according to a directive issued to local authorities on Wednesday.

The NACD said that while neither is classified as a drug, they contain high levels of nicotine that “affect the health more seriously than cigarettes”.

Cigarettes are widespread in Cambodia but over recent years wealthy, young Cambodian smokers are also turning to shisha lounges, especially in the tourist hubs of Phnom Penh and Siem Reap.

Shisha, also known as hookah or hubbly-bubbly, is a Middle-Eastern tradition of smoking flavoured tobacco via pipes and a water bowl.

E-cigarettes — battery-powered devices that simulate smoking by heating and vaporising a liquid solution containing nicotine — have also won a small but growing customer base in the kingdom.

The directive ordered authorities to confiscate shisha tobacco, pipes and e-cigarette paraphernalia, saying young people are being distracted from their studies by socialising over shisha.

The move prompted dismay from businesses serving shisha.

Lem Oudom, manager of The Sands shisha lounge in the capital, said the ban was “unfair” because the fruit-flavoured tobacco does not contain illicit drugs.

But he said he would follow the order and cease selling shisha.

According to a 2005 study by the World Health Organisation (WHO), water pipe smoke contains high concentrations of toxic compounds, including carbon monoxide, heavy metals, cancer-causing chemicals and potentially addictive levels of nicotine.

Smokers also inhale quantities of smoke many times larger and thicker than generated by normal cigarettes.

Research on e-cigarettes is less conclusive.

Supporters claim they are a harmless and valuable tool in helping smokers to quit and could save millions of lives.

But the World Health Organisation has advised against them, saying their potential health risk “remains undetermined”.

Sales of electronic cigarettes have surged globally, with tobacco manufacturers jumping on the trend.

Governments have struggled with how to regulate the product since its emergence.

In October, European lawmakers rejected a bid to classify e-cigarettes as medicinal products, which would have restricted their sale to pharmacies.

– AFP/xq

via Cambodia bans smoking shisha and e-cigarettes – Channel NewsAsia.

Haze-hit Indonesian province declares emergency


File photo of Indonesian firefighters battling forest fires in Riau province on Sumatra island. (AFP/ULET IFANSASTI/GREENPEACE)

 An Indonesian province at the heart of a Southeast Asian smog crisis last year has declared a state of emergency after being blanketed in thick haze from forest fires, officials said on Thursday.

JAKARTA: An Indonesian province at the heart of a Southeast Asian smog crisis last year has declared a state of emergency after being blanketed in thick haze from forest fires, officials said on Thursday.

Thousands have fallen ill, transport has been disrupted and schools closed after days of fires in Riau province on Sumatra island, where blazes are deliberately lit every year to clear land for palm oil and wood pulp plantations.

More than two dozen people suspected of starting fires in rainforest and peatland have so far been arrested, said national disaster agency spokesman Sutopo Purwo Nugroho.

Haze from fires on Sumatra is an annual problem in Southeast Asia, but last June Singapore and Malaysia were cloaked in the worst smog for more than a decade.

While some haze was detected in the two neighbouring countries in recent days, the air quality was mostly good.

Declaring an emergency allows Riau to seek help in tackling the blazes from the central government, and Nugroho said aircraft were preparing to drop water on fires and carry out “cloud-seeding” to chemically induce rain.

“The disaster agency is preparing aeroplanes and helicopters to carry out water-bombing of the fires,” he said.

More than 25,000 people have fallen ill in recent days due to high air pollution, with most suffering respiratory tract infections, said Riau disaster chief Said Saqlul Amri.

The emergency status means health centres must see patients free of charge, he said.

Local media reported that some flights to Riau had been cancelled this week while others were diverted, and schools were closed in some parts of the province.

Last year’s fires strained ties between Indonesia and its neighbours, prompting an apology from Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono to Malaysia and Singapore at the height of the crisis.

Indonesia is the world’s biggest producer of palm oil — which is found in everyday grocery items, such as shampoo and shaving gel — and Riau is the country’s main palm oil hub.

– AFP/nd

via Haze-hit Indonesian province declares emergency – Channel NewsAsia.

Two new H7N9 cases as experts suggest H9N2 control

poultry_market_0706684

Two more H7N9 influenza cases were reported in China today, including the first one from Zhejiang province in 2 weeks, as health groups weighed in with risk assessment updates and experts from China suggested a new way to get a jump on H7N9 and other novel viruses.

The newly confirmed infection from Zhejiang province, which last reported a case on Feb 12, involves a 2-year-old girl who is hospitalized with a mild illness, according to a provincial health department statement translated and posted by FluTrackers, an infectious disease news message board. Zhejiang province has the most H7N9 cases of any in China and has played a pivotal role in both outbreak waves.

The other new case involves a 65-year-old woman from Guangdong province who is hospitalized in critical condition, according to an official statement translated by FluTrackers.

The new cases lift the two-wave H7N9 outbreak total to 373, with 114 as the unofficial number of deaths. So far 237 illnesses have been detected in the outbreak’s second wave, which began in October, compared with 136 in the first wave last spring.

Risk assessment updates

In other developments, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) addressed the H7N9 threat in separate risk assessments.

The ECDC’s assessment came in a broader risk assessment of human avian influenza A infection in China, dated Feb 24. The PHAC posted its updated H7N9 risk assessment today.

The ECDC assessment summarized H7N9 events as of Feb 18, and since then, cases have continued to taper off. However, it said the brisk pace of human infections that marked the second wave might point to a larger wild or domestic bird reservoir, an increase in the number of exposed people, increased transmissibility of the virus, a seasonal pattern, or a combination of factors.

Meanwhile, the PHAC risk assessment update covers H7N9 developments in China through yesterday. The agency noted that poultry and environmental samples have been found in all areas that reported human cases, except for Jilin province and Beijing.

The PHAC noted that, in the second wave, cases appear to be less skewed toward older adults, though more infections continue to be detected in males. Seven pediatric cases were reported in January, three of which involved mild illnesses, and so far no unusual clinical presentations have been reported, the agency said.

So far, the virus doesn’t spread easily among people, though limited person-to-person transmission may occur when there is close contact, the update noted. The H7N9 virus bears close watching, though, because less severe cases have been seen in influenza-like illness surveillance, and the PHAC said it expects more cases to be reported as the flu season progresses.

Experts eye H9N2 control

In scientific developments, researchers from China today suggested that H9N2 avian flu appears to be an “incubator” for flu viruses of wild bird origin and that culling poultry infected with H9N2 might be an effective strategy for curbing the infections in humans. The team published its analysis online inThe Lancet.

They wrote that H7N9, plus H10N8—another novel avian flu virus that recently sickened three people, two fatally in China’s Jiangxi province—have a similar genetic lineage, which includes internal genes from H9N2 viruses in poultry. Reassortment between poultry H9N2 viruses and viruses from wild birds could trigger adaptation to domestic hosts, they observed.

“Poultry, especially in live markets, would have a pivotal role during the emergence of a novel influenza virus of avian origin,” the group wrote.

Since many avian flu viruses in poultry can infect people, it’s impossible to predict the next one that will cause an outbreak in humans, the authors said, so focusing on H9N2 control might allow officials to prevent the next event.

They called on health officials to shutter live-poultry markets or periodically disinfect the establishments in China and other countries that have live-poultry markets.

via Two new H7N9 cases as experts suggest H9N2 control | CIDRAP.

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