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Archive for September 18, 2013

Modern Reminder

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Next – Modern Reminder (4.5 stars with 75 Ratings)

Universal App

$0.99 →Free

Next seeks to aid you in reaching and achieving your goals, whatever they might be. It’s a to-do list/personal assistant/planner/reminder app all rolled into one. It contains a complex mathematical algorithm that helps you in finding the best way to achieve your goals. It will give you the ability to manage your time so that you’re continually staying on track. It boasts multiple methods for analysis, such as a prioritization method (A-B-C rule), and the pareto method (80-20 rule). It all comes wrapped in an easy to navigate interface that’s designed quite well, so give it a shot and see if it can help.

via Best Free Apps of the Day on 9/16. Next, Where do Zombies Come From?, Hidden Wonders of the Depths, & More! | App Chronicles.

Green Bean Tempura

green-bean-tempura

PREPARATION

Whisk 1 1/4 cups all-purpose flour and 12 ounces club soda; season with kosher salt. Pour vegetable oil into a large heavy pot to a depth of 2 inches; heat over medium-high heat until a deep-fry thermometer registers 375°. Working in batches, coat 1/2 pound trimmed green beans in batter; fry until golden, about 3 minutes per batch. Transfer to paper towels and season with salt.

via Green Bean Tempura – Bon Appétit.

 

Can you mix antibiotics and alcohol?

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Studies show booze won’t stop most treatments from working properly or cause unpleasant side-effects. However, the story isn’t quite that simple.

 

Women who are in the early stages of pregnancy, and who are not ready to share the happy news, know that turning down an alcoholic drink at a social occasion can be a dead giveaway. Telling friends and colleagues they are on antibiotics is the perfect excuse because they are so commonly used. Even the nosiest of acquaintances is unlikely to ask what they are being taken for.

But is it really true that you need to abstain from alcohol when on a course of antibiotics?

Some people assume that alcohol will stop antibiotics from working properly, while others believe that it will cause side-effects. When staff in a London genitourinary clinic surveyed more than 300 patients they found that 81% believed the former assumption, with 71% believing the latter.

For most antibiotics neither of these assumptions is true. The fear for doctors is that these erroneous beliefs might make patients skip their medication over a glass of wine. Anything that encourages people to miss doses of antibiotics adds to the serious problem of antibiotic resistance.

In fact, the majority of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics are not affected by alcohol. There are some exceptions. The antibiotics cephalosporin cefotetan and cephalosporin ceftriaxone slow alcohol breakdown, leading to a rise in levels of a substance called acetaldehyde. This can cause a host of unpleasant symptoms including nausea, vomiting, facial flushing, headache, breathlessness and chest pain. Similar symptoms are caused by a drug called disulfiram, sometimes used in the treatment for alcohol dependency. The idea is that the moment a patient has a drink, they experience these unpleasant symptoms, and this dissuades them from drinking more. The symptoms are unpleasant, so it is important that people abstain from alcohol while they’re taking these particular antibiotics, and for a few days afterwards.

Another type of antibiotic that comes with a specific warning not to take alongside alcohol is metronidazole. Used to treat dental infections, infected leg ulcers and pressure sores, it’s thought to cause the same list of symptoms as the previously mentioned cephalosporins. This link has been disputed since a 2003 review of studies found a lack of evidence to support it, and a very small controlled study in which Finnish men given metronidazole for five days suffered no side effects when they consumed alcohol. The authors concede that this doesn’t rule out the possibility that a few individuals are affected, and the current advice is still to avoid alcohol when taking it.

There are a few other antibiotics for which there are good reasons to avoid drinking alcohol while taking them, including tinidazole, linezolid and erythromycin, but these interactions are so well-known that doctors give patients specific warnings.

Recycled tale

This leaves a long list of other antibiotics that can be mixed with alcohol. Of course getting drunk is not going to help your recovery when you’re ill. It can make you tired and dehydrated, but it’s not because of any interaction with your medication.

It’s possible that the isolated cases led to the myth that all antibiotics don’t mix with alcoholic drinks, but there are two more intriguing theories. One is that because antibiotics are used to treat some of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, doctors in the past were somehow punishing the patients for becoming infected by depriving them of their favourite tipple.

Or there’s the explanation given to one of the authors of the London genitourinary clinic survey. James Bingham met the late Brigadier Sir Ian Fraser, who introduced the use of penicillin for injured soldiers in North Africa during World War II. At the time penicillin was in such short supply that after a patient had taken it, the drug was retrieved from his urine and recycled. Recuperating soldiers were allowed to drink beer, but unfortunately this increased the volume of their urine, making it harder obtain the penicillin and, according to the Brigadier, led commanding officers to ban beer.

It’s a good story, irrespective of whether or not it is the true source of the popular misconception. Dispelling the myth is something of a double-edged sword. Encouraging those on the antibiotics who cannot resist a glass or two to complete their courses of treatment could help counter the spread of antibiotic resistance. However greater public understanding of the true picture may mean that women wanting to keep their early pregnancies to themselves in social situations may have to be a little more inventive in future.

via BBC – Future – Health – Can you mix antibiotics and alcohol?.

Embryo ‘chatter’ clues to fertility

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The “chemical chatter” that determines whether an embryo can implant in the womb has been detailed by scientists.

 

It is important for the lining of the womb to know if an embryo is healthy before allowing it to implant, but how this is done was unclear.

A study at the University of Southampton has shown the amount of a chemical, trypsin, helps determine whether an embryo implants.

It is hoped the discovery will lead to new fertility treatments.

When a sperm fertilises an egg and begins to divide and grow, the process does not always go smoothly.

“A lot of embryos have chromosomal abnormalities so there must be a mechanism to stop a pregnancy,” fertility scientist Prof Nick Macklon told the BBC.

“So the question is how does the endometrium [the lining of the uterus] detect the quality?”

Chatter


This has a big clinical context as implant failure is still the major cause of IVF failure”

Prof Nick MacklonUniversity of Southampton

Research to be presented at the Reproductive Biology conference at the University of Southampton shows chemicals given off by an early-stage embryo give the endometrium clues.

Trypsin seem to be critical. If the chemical is at the right level, then it changes the nature of womb to make it more inclined to accept the embryo. But if the levels are out, then the lining becomes stressed and less likely to accept.

Prof Macklon said: “With a good embryo then the good response is turned up to allow implantation, if there’s a bad embryo then the endometrium responds to reject the embryo.

“We’ve identified the pathways which signal this change and this has a big clinical context as implant failure is still the major cause of IVF failure.”

Better odds

He said large numbers of couple had fertility problems and that he hoped breakthroughs in understanding how an embryo implanted successfully could improve the odds in IVF.

Monitoring the signals given off by an embryo could help choose which ones to implant during IVF, although this idea has not yet been tested.

It could also help to explain recurrent miscarriage, which in some cases has been linked to women being “super-fertile” and accepting embryos that should be rejected.

However, research will have to progress carefully as forcing a poor quality embryo to implant would lead to serious problems.

Prof Siobhan Quenby, who is also a spokeswoman for the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, said: “It’s a really exciting mechanism, but the challenge is turning it into a treatment, I lie in bed at night thinking about how you would turn this into a treatment.

“It’s beautiful science, but we’re not there yet.”

via BBC News – Embryo ‘chatter’ clues to fertility.

‘Body on a chip’ uses 3D printed organs to test vaccines

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The 3D printer that will be used to print miniature organs for the ‘body on a chip’ system

 

Miniature human organs developed with a modified 3D printer are being used to test new vaccines in a lab in the US.

The “body on a chip” project replicates human cells to print structures which mimic the functions of the heart, liver, lung and blood vessels.

The organs are then placed on a microchip and connected with a blood substitute, allowing scientists to closely monitor specific treatments.

The US Department of Defense has backed the new technology with $24m (£15m).

Bioprinting, a form of 3D printing which, in effect, creates human tissue, is not new. Nor is the idea of culturing 3D human tissue on a microchip.


It works better than testing on animals”

Dr Anthony AtalaWake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine

But the tests being carried out at the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine in North Carolina are the first to combine several organs on the same device, which then model the human response to chemical toxins or biologic agents.

Printing organs

The modified 3D printers, developed at Wake Forest, print human cells in hydrogel-based scaffolds.

The lab-engineered organs are then placed on a 2in (5cm) chip and linked together with a circulating blood substitute, similar to the type used in trauma surgery.

The blood substitute keeps the cells alive and can be used to introduce chemical or biologic agents, as well as potential therapies, into the system.

Sensors which measure real-time temperature, oxygen levels, pH and other factors feed back information on how the organs react and – crucially – how they interact with each other.

Dr Anthony Atala, institute director at Wake Forest and lead investigator on the project, said the technology would be used both to “predict the effects of chemical and biologic agents and to test the effectiveness of potential treatments”.

Miniature tissues samples can be exposed to toxins as well as potential treatments
Miniature tissue samples can be exposed to toxins as well as potential treatments

“You are actually testing human tissue,” he explained.

“It works better than testing on animals.”

Anti-terrorism

A group of experts from around the US is involved in putting together the technology, which will carry out toxicity testing and identification.

The funding for the project was awarded by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), a division of the US government which combats nuclear, chemical and biological weapons.

The tests being carried out at Wake Forest “would significantly decrease the time and cost needed to develop medical countermeasures” for bioterrorism attacks, said Dr Clint Florence, acting branch chief of vaccines within the Translational Medical Division at DTRA.

Wake Forest said it was able to test for antidotes to sarin gas, recently used against civilians in Syria.

Printed house

Dr Atala, whose field is regenerative medicine, said the bioprinting technology was first used at Wake Forest for building tissues and organs for replacement in patients.

His team had managed to replicate flat organs, such as skin, tubular organs such as blood vessels, and even hollow non-tubular organs like the bladder and the stomach, which have more complex structures and functions.

But building solid organs like the heart and the liver is the hardest challenge yet.

A combination microscope and incubator is used to image tissue over time
A combination microscope and incubator is used to image tissue over time

It takes about 30 minutes just to print a miniature kidney or heart, which is the size of a small biscuit.

“There are so many cells per centimetre that making a big organ is quite complex,” Dr Atala told the BBC.

But the bioprinting of full size solid organs might not be far away.

“We are working on creating solid organ implants,” said Dr Atala.

Bioink containing various types of cell is printed into moulds made from agarose gel. Bioink containing various types of cell is printed into moulds made from agarose gel.

via BBC News – ‘Body on a chip’ uses 3D printed organs to test vaccines.

Moving to the rhythm ‘can help language skills’

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The researchers set out to investigate the link between music and language

 

Moving in time to a steady beat is closely linked to better language skills, a study suggests.

People who performed better on rhythmic tests also showed enhanced neural responses to speech sounds.

The researchers suggest that practising music could improve other skills, particularly speech.

In the Journal of Neuroscience, the authors argue that rhythm is an integral part of language.

“We know that moving to a steady beat is a fundamental skill not only for music performance but one that has been linked to language skills,” said Nina Kraus, of the Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory at Northwestern University in Illinois.

More than 100 teenagers were asked to tap their fingers along to a beat. Their accuracy was measured by how closely their responses matched the timing of a metronome.

Next, in order to understand the biological basis of rhythmic ability, the team also measured the brainwaves of their participants with electrodes, a technique called electroencephalography. This was to observe the electrical activity in the brain in response to sound.

Electroencephalography
Those with musical training had enhanced brain responses to speech sounds

Using this biological approach, the researchers found that those who had better musical training also had enhanced neural responses to speech sounds. In poorer readers this response was diminished.

‘Neural jitter’

“It turns out that kids who are poor readers have a lot of difficulty doing this motor task and following the beat. In both speech and music, rhythm provides a temporal map with signposts to the most likely locations of meaningful input,” Prof Kraus told BBC News.

The brainwaves recorded matched the soundwaves, she said. “You can even take the recorded brainwave and play it back through your speaker and it will sound like the soundwave.

“It seems that the same ingredients that are important for reading are strengthened with musical experience. Musicians have highly consistent auditory-neural responses.

“It may be that musical training – with its emphasis on rhythmic skills – can exercise the auditory-system, leading to less neural jitter and stronger sound-to-meaning associations that are so essential for learning to read,” added Prof Kraus

John Iversen of the University of California in San Diego studies how the brain processes music. He was not involved with the research but agreed that musical training could have important impacts on the brain.

“This study adds another piece to the puzzle in the emerging story suggesting that musical-rhythmic abilities are correlated with improved performance in non-music areas, particularly language,” he said.

via BBC News – Moving to the rhythm ‘can help language skills’.

慎用口服抗黴菌藥物 小心肝腎出問題

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氣候潮溼,許多民眾感染黴菌,出現體癬、股癬、汗斑、香港腳等皮膚疾病,為求速效,不少皮膚科醫師給予患者口服藥物「ketoconazole」及外敷藥膏,但美國FDA最近禁止口服抗黴菌感染藥物作為治療任何黴菌感染的第一線用藥,以避免肝腎損傷。

衛生福利部食品藥物管理署藥品組簡任技正戴雪詠表示,國內許多皮膚科醫師都習慣使用口服抗黴菌藥物ketoconazole來對付頑固型黴菌感染,健保統計,每年約有20萬人使用此藥。

美國食品藥物管理局(FDA)日前公布,使用ketoconazole成分的口服劑型藥品,可能具有致命的肝腎損傷風險,因此不可作為治療任何黴菌感染的第一線用藥,只可用於其他抗黴菌藥品治療無效時或無法耐受的特定黴菌感染。

為了確保國人用藥安全,戴雪詠說,日前針對各醫療院所、皮膚科、家醫科、內科等三大醫學會發布「風險溝通表」,希望醫師謹慎用藥,避免藥物不良反應。

皮膚科開業醫師趙昭明分析,黴菌感染可分為表淺及深層兩大類,前者比較好治療,以擦藥為主,但後者則屬於頑固型感染,擦藥效果有限,通常合併口服藥劑,雙管齊下。

不過,ketoconazole藥物經由肝臟代謝,肝炎患者或是肝臟功能欠佳的人一旦長期服用,引發肝臟、腎臟的毒性,引發致命的副作用。

趙昭明提醒,使用ketoconazole口服藥的病患,千萬不可飲酒,如果發現異常疲勞、尿液顏色加深、糞便變白或黃疸症狀,應立即就醫。另外,不可自行停藥,有疑慮,應與醫師討論。

戴雪詠強調,美國FDA所發布的警訊,只針對ketoconazole口服劑型,至於塗抹的藥膏、凝膠、洗髮精等外用劑型,則無風險,民眾不需緊張,可以安心使用。

via 慎用口服抗黴菌藥物 小心肝腎出問題 – 新聞快訊 – 健康醫療網-健康,醫藥,美容,養生,保健即時資訊分享.

熱量破表!一餐中秋烤肉=14碗飯

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中秋連假快到了,許多人趕在颱風來之前買好烤肉食材,無論如何都要吃一頓烤肉大餐,但你知道一頓烤肉大餐下來,熱量竟然等同於一口氣吃下14碗白飯!營養師表示,舉例來說,大家愛吃的牛小排,1塊約80克再刷上烤肉醬就等於1.4碗飯,再吃下其他食材,不知不覺就熱量爆表。

中秋節親朋好友團聚,烤肉已經成為固定活動,光田綜合醫院營養室主任林淑雯特別計算了16樣常見的烤肉食材刷上烤肉醬後的熱量(請參考下方表格),發現許多食材熱量高,再加上醬油醃漬、刷烤肉醬,很可能一餐下來就等於吃了好幾十碗白飯。

 

常見16樣烤肉食材刷上烤肉醬後的熱量。(表格提供/光田綜合醫院)

常見16樣烤肉食材刷上烤肉醬後的熱量。(表格提供/光田綜合醫院)

 

一餐4100大卡 慢跑6小時才能消耗

如果將表格中16種食材都吃下肚,總共會攝取4100大卡,如果以1個體重60公斤的成人來說,要慢跑6小時才能消耗掉,且一般烤肉時所使用的肉類通常會先用醬油醃製,如再加上烤肉醬,容易攝取過多的鹽分,導致腎臟或心血管疾病之負擔。

烤玉米一串等於1.3碗飯的熱量。

烤玉米一串等於1.3碗飯的熱量。

 

林主任建議,醃漬物可選擇低鹽醬油,或烤肉醬可加水稀釋來降低鹹度,另外,燒焦的物質是很強的致癌物,最好將燒焦的部位丟棄不要食用,烘烤時可利用錫箔紙包裹食材,既可保留食物的鮮味,又可預防烤肉醬料因火候控制不佳而燒焦。

食材聰明選 多點蔬菜多健康

林主任指出,香腸屬高脂肉類、培根屬於油脂類,應少選擇;且要避免烤多油、多皮的肉類及內臟,因其含高油及高膽固醇;多選擇瘦肉,因肥肉的油滴在炭火上會產生對人體有害的致癌物質。另外烤肉時可加入青椒、四季豆、香菇、茭白筍、絲瓜、金針菇等蔬菜作為材料,以達到營養均衡的效果。

【營養師小提醒】:

中秋大快朵頤之餘,也應注意食物攝取的均衡及份量控制,少點油脂及膽固醇食物而多吃蔬菜,茶餘飯後不忘攝取一些水果,以增加纖維素及維生素之攝取;少一點負擔多一點健康。

via 熱量破表!一餐中秋烤肉=14碗飯 | 20130917 | 華人健康網.

肺癌治療不放棄 標靶選擇很重要

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吸菸是肺癌的危險因子之一。

腫瘤科醫師表示,部分肺癌病患發現時已到了晚期,惡性腫瘤體積變大,不見得能手術切除,若癌細胞發生移轉,也會增加治療上的困難度。隨著治療經驗的日漸成熟,出現更多肺癌治療的選擇與組合,病患只要遵照醫師的治療計畫,搭配正確藥物的選擇,可為自己爭取更多的時間與治療的可能性。

在過去,肺癌每年奪走將近8千人性命,晚期肺癌因癌細胞轉移、惡性腫瘤變大壓迫到內臟而無法動刀等因素,僅約1成病患可存活5年以上。然而,近年來,隨著標靶治療藥物以及其他新的化學治療藥物的發展,肺癌治療有了很大的進展,也改善了病人的生活品質。

善用標靶藥 能有效延長壽命

台北榮總胸腔部胸腔腫瘤科主治醫師陳育民表示,國內肺癌患者約85%屬於非小細胞肺癌,腺癌佔大宗,晚期多以傳統化療和標靶藥物治療,用藥準則牽涉表皮生長因子(EGFR)基因篩檢,EGFR變異者可前後使用標靶藥治療與化療,大幅增加患者壽命。

陳育民醫師解釋,出現變異者代表癌細胞藉此途徑活化,目前健保給付的標靶藥物有兩種,兩者皆為中止傳導途徑的阻斷劑,均適用於典型的表皮生長因子變異者。若沒有變異,則需另外擬定治療準則,從傳統化療開始著手。

陳育民醫師指出,隨著治療經驗的日漸成熟,出現更多肺癌治療的選擇與組合。(圖片提供/陳育民醫師)

陳育民醫師指出,隨著治療經驗的日漸成熟,出現更多肺癌治療的選擇與組合。(圖片提供/陳育民醫師)

 

標靶給付有兩種 選擇有差別

陳育民醫師進一步提到,目前健保給付標靶藥物有兩種,血中藥物濃度也不同,針對不同類型的病患,各有適合的使用藥物,其中,對於部分非典型變異者、身材體表面積較大(如男性)、曾經吸菸過的患者,選擇停留在血液中的濃度較高的標靶藥物,方能獲得較佳的治療效果。

此外,研究結果顯示,對於晚期肺癌第一線治療表皮生長因子受體變異,使用血中濃度較高的標靶藥物平均得以延長13個月無疾病存活期,與癌症和平共處,且病人普遍對於此類藥物耐受性高。

標靶藥物的副作用包括:全身性皮膚疹、甲溝炎、噁心及嘔吐等,嚴重程度常常是因人而異,建議應密切地與醫護人員討論對副作用的處理,例如可搭配輔佐治療藥物使用,來緩解症狀。

在飲食方面,晚期肺癌患者須注意均衡的養分攝取,並充分休息,不吃生冷或未煮熟的食物,避免出入公共場所、定期回診,這樣就可把副作用所帶來的傷害降至最低。

via 肺癌治療不放棄 標靶選擇很重要 | 20130918 | 華人健康網.

孕媽咪疑問多 50個孕期常識

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懷孕對於許多媽咪來說是全新的體驗,初次懷孕的媽咪經常有許多不太了解的地方,日常生活中總是會抱持著各種疑問:「這個可以吃嗎?」「這個我能用嗎?」「這樣做,會不會對胎兒不好?」

母愛的偉大,使媽咪不再以自己的喜好為優先考量,而是首先會考慮到對於胎兒的影響。不過這些關於日常生活的諸多小疑問,究竟應該問誰才好?想要查書,書本上往往都寫得很學理;想上網查,卻不一定查得到相關資訊,網友所分享的說法也不見得正確。該怎麼辦呢?

本文蒐集了50個新手孕媽咪常見的生活小疑問,分別邀請了三位知名婦產科醫師來回答,將您林林總總的孕期煩惱,一掃而空!

Q1.「當產兆來臨時,每個人都一定會有真陣痛、破水、落紅嗎?有沒有可能只出現其中一種產兆?」

張建玫醫師表示,這三大產兆是每位產婦都必定會經歷的,但真陣痛、破水、落紅出現的先後順序則不一定,這三種產兆皆可能先個別出現,然後才會伴隨其他產兆。落紅通常1~2天內會生產,但是也有例外。產兆出現多久才會生產,皆因人而異。懷每一胎時,先出現的產兆也不一定相同。
Q2.「胎動與宮縮的關係?最晚什麼時候一定會出現胎動?」
懷孕4、5個月左右,胎動就會開始出現;8、9個月的時候,胎動會很明顯。不過許多孕婦會將「胎動」誤認為「子宮收縮」,或是將「子宮收縮」誤認為「胎動」。
該如何區分兩者呢?其實當子宮收縮時,整個子宮都會變得很硬,一陣子很緊、一陣子又放鬆;至於胎動時,子宮只會局部緊繃,不會使整個肚子都很緊、很硬,而且時間只會一下子,有時候肚子甚至還會瞬間凸一塊(胎兒的小手小腳在踢)。如果仍未足月,子宮收縮頻率卻很密集,應盡快去醫院檢查,有可能是早產跡象。
Q3.「懷孕時,味覺真的會改變嗎?」
因為荷爾蒙波動,黃體素使腸胃蠕動變慢,導致孕婦胃口不好、消化不良,進而使味蕾改變,對於食物的喜好也不再相同。另外懷每一胎時,荷爾蒙的變化皆不同,也不一定會想吃懷上一胎常吃的食物。
Q4.「懷男生,肌膚會變得比較粗糙?」
這種說法純屬子虛烏有,並無科學依據。不過懷孕這件事本身會導致肌膚變得比較粗糙、黯沉、長痘痘或毛囊發炎,與孕期荷爾蒙變化、黑色素沉澱有關,卻與胎兒的性別無關。不過也有些準媽媽懷孕反而皮膚變好、變漂亮,所以是因人而異。
Q5.孕媽咪可以搭飛機出國嗎?
航空公司一般規定32週以上就不能再搭飛機出國,不過各家航空公司的規定也並非完全一致,有出國計畫的孕婦應先瀏覽航空公司的網站,查清楚相關規定。另外也要注意,部分航空公司還會要求孕婦出示醫師所開立的「適航證明」,這些都要先行了解,以免要出國時措手不及。
Q6.搭飛機時,要注意什麼?
搭乘飛機時,建議安全帶別綁太緊,以免使肚子不舒服;飛機上的空氣較乾燥,孕婦要事先及途中做好保濕;搭乘遠程班機時,應多走動與按摩小腿,以避免靜脈栓塞。
Q7.孕婦可以開車或騎車嗎?
因為肚子太大,孕婦的平衡感會比較差,騎車容易顛簸,比較不建議騎車,以免不小心重心失衡、發生意外;至於開車的話則沒關係,但務必要小心,當週數太大時則不建議開車,以免肚子不慎碰撞到方向盤。張建玫醫師指出,孕婦繫安全帶的方式也應與一般人不同,當肚子太大時,上方的安全帶從兩乳間通過;下方的安全帶則放置於肚子下方,以免壓迫到肚子、腹壓上升,引起不適。
Q8.孕期生病,可以吃藥嗎?
所有藥品都有分級,總共有A、B、C、D、X五級,前兩級孕婦大致皆可服用,但C級則因人而異,最好與您的醫師討論;D與X級則是已有實驗證實對胎兒會造成危害;但緊急或必要時權衡利害之使用仍可接受。A級以維生素為主;B級則如感冒藥與頭痛藥等常用藥物;C級則如某些抗精神症狀的藥物。
通常醫師會開給孕婦所服用的藥物,都是屬於比較安全的藥物,孕婦不用過於擔憂,不過不建議自行購買坊間成藥服用。如果不確定藥品屬於哪一種分級,可諮詢醫院藥局櫃臺查詢分級。
Q9.「孕婦需要遠離電視、微波爐、手機等,遠離電磁波問題嗎
微波爐與電視含有低量電磁波,雖然不至於直接影響到胎兒,不過為了以防萬一,最好還是保持距離。使用微波爐與電視時,至少要間隔1公尺以上的距離;手機則是盡量長話短說,別打太久「褒電話粥」。
Q10.「孕婦可以可以慢跑嗎?」
孕婦不適合快跑,但慢跑倒是沒問題,不過要等懷孕3個月以後再開始,跑步的時候也要留意腳步、小心別跌倒。另外還有一個前提是:懷孕前本來就要有慢跑的習慣;如果懷孕前不常慢跑,懷孕後也不宜貿然嘗試,懷孕後的運動習慣不要比懷孕前增加太多。這是因為原來如果沒有運動習慣,肌耐力不夠,不足以應付突然劇增的運動量,容易導致肌肉痠痛、電解質不平衡或抽筋。
 
 
Q11.「誰不適合慢跑?」
倘若有前置胎盤問題的孕婦,則不適合慢跑。其他孕婦一旦身體不適,必須立即暫停慢跑習慣,可改散步或做瑜珈。除了跑步之外,孕婦若想騎腳踏車,最好改騎固定在室內的腳踏車,以免重心不穩摔倒。萬一不小心摔倒,可去醫院檢查有無宮縮或其他問題,摔倒後的1週內都要注意是否有產兆出現。
Q12.「懷孕合併子宮肌瘤,會因此而肚子更大嗎?一定要採剖腹產?」
肚子會不會因為長了子宮肌瘤而更大,要依肌瘤生長的位置與大小而定,不是每個有子宮肌瘤的孕婦肚子都會變得更大。如果已懷孕才發現,不建議以手術拿掉肌瘤。若子宮肌瘤生長的位置擋住產道,必須採剖腹產;若並未擋住產道,則仍可嘗試自然產。
Q13.懷孕期間可以有性生活嗎?
如果有前置胎盤、出血、宮縮頻繁(每小時3次以上)、早期破水的問題,以上任何一種情況都不能有性生活。即使懷胎9月,只要胎兒的狀況穩定、沒有任何產兆出現,一樣可以維持性生活。但若準爸爸過分深入或猛烈衝刺,容易刺激脆弱的子宮頸,引起子宮收縮;湯匙式或狗爬式則為較合適的姿勢。
Q14.懷孕會比較健忘?
孕期即使荷爾蒙波動較大,也不會使孕婦健忘。荷爾蒙波動只會使孕婦疲倦、想睡覺,倘若孕婦又睡眠不足的話,注意力就會不集中,這與一般人睡眠不足導致記憶力不佳是同樣的道理。
Q15.「孕婦可以按摩肩頸嗎?」
按摩肩膀、背部、手腳沒問題,至於按摩頸部則與一般人一樣,要小心按摩的力道,不舒服隨時要停止,因為孕婦按摩與一般按摩的手法、力道皆不相同,孕婦按摩整體的手法以輕柔為主,主要是讓孕婦肩頸肌肉放鬆,以及身體淋巴與皮下層的帶動,以達到孕婦身心緩解的目的;若按摩不當則易出現後遺症。
至於肚子腹部位置,其實也可以輕柔按摩。若很擔心,可以跳過不按摩,腹部不是一定要按摩的部位。按摩時,若想使用精油,可用屬性較溫和的柑橘類精油,一般來說不會並對胎兒造成什麼大問題,因為經由皮膚所吸收進入體內的精油量比較有限;但不建議使用較刺激的薄荷精油,塗抹在肚子上可能會使孕婦腸絞痛。
Q16.「便秘怎麼辦?可以灌腸或用力解便嗎?」
孕期不宜灌腸,因為灌腸會使肚子疼痛,進而引起子宮收縮。孕期若便秘也不建議用力解便,張建玫醫師表示,過於用力解便同樣會引起宮縮、嚴重者可能有早產之虞。
建議:1.維持定期排便習慣,排便時不要用力過猛。2.多喝水(每天6~8杯,也建議在起床空腹時喝一杯,可以刺激排便);亦可飲用優酪乳或吃乳酸菌。3.多吃纖維類食物、水果。4.每天早晚做和緩的運動,如散步。5.少吃過於辛辣、燥烈的食物。
Q17.「子宮收縮與腹漲,感覺上有什麼分別?」
有些新手孕婦會有此疑問,簡單來說,子宮收縮會一陣子緊繃、一陣子再變鬆,腹漲則會一直持續,不會鬆鬆緊緊地來回變換。萬一無法確定時,可至醫院綁胎兒監視器檢查(健保給付),測胎心音也測宮縮強度和頻率。
Q18.「孕期吃易致敏食物,會使胎兒體質容易過敏嗎?」
王家瑋主任表示,孕期吃易致敏食物,的確有可能使胎兒體質易過敏。如果孕婦知道自己對哪些食物會過敏,如帶殼海鮮類,就要盡量少吃。
Q19.「多久胎動一次算正常?」
每個人的胎動次數都不相同,並無絕對標準。有時候胎兒睡著了,就不會有胎動,胎兒通常每次會睡約1~2小時不等。胎動最好是自己跟自己比,如果胎動次數與平日相差很多的話,必須就醫觀察。
Q20.「真陣痛來臨前,一定會有假陣痛?」
假陣痛即為不規則陣痛,稍事休息可以減緩疼痛感。不過並非每個孕婦都一定會有假陣痛。假陣痛持續多久之後才會開始真陣痛,也是因人而異。有些人甚至出現假陣痛後,長達2、3個月才生產。通常假陣痛只會引起局部疼痛,不會整個肚子都變硬。
Q21.「羊水太多或太少,表示胎兒有問題嗎?」
羊水太多易早產或破水,且要擔心是否因胎兒先天性異常所造成;羊水太少則可能代表胎兒的泌尿系統有問題、或是已經破水了卻沒發現。無論是羊水過多或過少,都必須做進一步檢查,例如以超音波檢查胎兒是否有先天性異常問題、或是以羊水試紙檢測是否已破水。(有些孕婦以為自己多喝水,就會使胎兒的羊水量增加,其實毫無用處。)
Q22.「想要讓胎兒的皮膚白皙一點,有辦法嗎?」
其實無論孕期吃什麼或喝什麼,都無法讓胎兒的皮膚變得更加白皙,膚色為天生遺傳。孕婦多吃富含維生素C的食物,亦無法替胎兒「美白」;相反地,常吃沾了醬油的食物、或喝咖啡、茶,也不會使胎兒的皮膚變黑。
Q23.「孕婦可以噴香水嗎?」
目前並無足夠的研究顯示孕期不適合噴香水。若是想要噴香水的話,可使用成分較天然的香水,略噴一點即可。其實香水即使是噴在身上,經由皮膚所吸收、進入人體的量相當有限,大致上都不會對胎兒帶來不好的影響。
Q24.「患有心臟病或高血壓,懷孕時要注意什麼?
懷孕會將體內原本潛伏的疾病因子引發出來,如果心臟病或高血壓的患者懷孕,平時應多量血壓,否則高血壓問題會更趨於嚴重。降血壓或抑制心臟病的藥物,即使在懷孕後仍要繼續服用,只是需要調整劑量,並請向您的心臟專科或新陳代謝科醫師詢問用藥劑量。
Q25.「為什麼懷孕時皮膚會發癢?該怎麼辦?」
孕期皮膚癢,通常發生在肚皮或四肢的部分。隨著子宮越來越大,肚皮也隨之被撐大,皮膚結締組織變形、斷裂,當皮膚組織受傷時,身體會自動去修補,傷口快痊癒的時候通常會很癢,這就是孕期皮膚發癢的原因。待傷口修復以後,倘若疤痕沒褪去,就會形成妊娠紋;至於在四肢的方面,則是因為孕期水腫的緣故,使手腳的皮膚組織一樣撐大變形,傷口修復期亦會發癢。
這些發癢的情形,通常在產後會逐漸消失。癢的時候最好不要搔抓傷口,以免越抓越癢,甚至將傷口抓破發炎感染。
如果真的很癢時,可以塗抹一點潤膚乳液或止癢藥膏,正因為皮膚的吸收能力有限,即使擦了一點止癢藥膏或乳液,通常也不會對胎兒造成傷害。即使含了少量的類固醇,若經醫師指示塗抹,也不用過於擔心。

全文內容請參考:【嬰兒與母親】Mababy.com

via 孕媽咪疑問多 50個孕期常識 | 20130918 | 華人健康網.

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