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Archive for September 8, 2013

研究:每天喝3杯紅茶 能預防蛀牙

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紅茶、綠茶中的類黃酮化合物,對於清除口腔細菌、預防蛀牙有幫助。(圖片/華人健康網)

 

不管是紅茶、綠茶、烏龍茶,都有卓越的保健功效,烏龍茶可防止聽力退化、保護心血管,綠茶豐富的兒茶素、多酚物質,可以減緩老化、防癌、增骨質密度;而關於紅茶的好處,近來英國最新一份研究報告指出,紅茶能減少口腔中引起蛀牙的兩種細菌孳生,進而達到預防蛀牙的功效。

英國《每日郵報》報導指出,茶葉本身特有的抗氧化成份(黃酮類化合物、兒茶素)、單寧類物質,都有抑制微生物孳生的作用,發表於「英國營養基金會」(British Nutrition Foundation’s Nutrition Bulletin)上的報告,建議每日紅茶飲用量約為3~4杯(一般茶杯大小),就能達到預防蛀牙的效果。

茶多酚抑制口腔中細菌

口腔中有數千種微生物細菌,而其中就以「變形鏈球菌」(Streptococcus mutans)和「乳酸桿菌」(Lactobacillus)為主要導致蛀牙、牙周病的兩大兇手,當細菌與口腔的碳水化合物起反應,會產生酸性物質而酸蝕牙齒表面、造成疾病;而紅茶富含黃酮化合物,抗菌力強,可以消除口腔中多數細菌。

其實除了紅茶,綠茶也有相同功效,除了含氟可抑制細菌,兒茶素也可以抑制鏈球菌和其他細菌,有助減少細菌黏著在牙齒上、停留在口腔裡的機會,降低蛀牙的機會,臨床上也已證明兒茶素類可明顯減少菌斑及牙周指數,但對口腔中其他微生物沒有影響。

via 研究:每天喝3杯紅茶 能預防蛀牙 | 20130828 | 華人健康網.

運動時滑手機 大腦缺氧易分心

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運動時仍經常盯著眼前的小螢幕,容易加速消耗腦中氧氣,專注力更難集中。

 

現代人壓力大,無論是上班族工作或學生讀書,常有專注力難集中的情況,容易影響工作績效和學業成績。為減輕壓力、提升專注力,許多人藉跑步、飛輪等運動抒解壓力,但中醫師提醒若運動時仍盯著電視螢幕或手機看,容易加速消耗腦中氧氣,不僅無法達到預期的舒壓效果,也會導致分心情況更嚴重。

注意力不集中 腦中缺氧是主因

中醫師杜憲閎表示,撇除過動症、妥瑞氏症、強迫症等精神官能症之外,注意力不集中多與腦部缺氧有關。而造成腦部血液循環變差甚至缺氧現象的原因,包括壓力大、精神緊繃、睡眠品質不加、運動量不足,或是長期坐姿不良造成肩頸僵硬,頸部脊椎或肌肉壓迫頸動脈等。

其他伴隨注意力不集中所出現腦部缺氧後遺症,還有容易疲倦、眼睛酸澀、失眠,甚至是自律神經失調等症狀。

增加大腦含氧量的最簡單方式就是深呼吸,而隨著運動養生風氣盛行,越來越多人喜歡利用下班時間或假日到健身房做定點式跑步運動或踩飛輪等運動,一方面訓練體能,一方面抒解連日來累積的壓力,為接下來的工作儲備精力和專注力,但杜憲閎中醫師提醒運動時不要邊看手機或想事情,需要「專心放空」、不思考,才能避免運動吸入的氧氣被大腦消耗,防止運動變成勞動,以免工作更不易專心。

善用中藥材調製成茶飲,可促進氣血循環,提升專注力。

善用中藥材調製成茶飲,可促進氣血循環,提升專注力。

 

提升專注力 漢方茶飲改善氣血循環

除了適度的「真運動」可增加血中含氧量之外,杜憲閎中醫師也建議透過中藥茶飲促進氣血循環,改善注意力不集中的情況。

★補氣養精茶

  • 材料:紅景天3錢、葛根3錢、薑黃1錢、天麻1錢、遠志2錢、黃耆3錢、陳 皮3錢、洛神花3錢、甘草3錢。

作法:將上述藥材洗淨後,一起將6碗清水倒入不銹鋼鍋子,放入外鍋添加1碗水的大同電鍋,煮到開關跳起來即可。

  • 說明:
    1. 此帖茶飲可每星期煮1次,早晚服用1碗,剩下的可放冰箱冷藏。
    2. 若是容易畏寒、懼風、四肢冰冷的虛寒體質者,可再加人參一片共同熬煮,具有補陽氣的作用。
    3. 若是經常嘴破、喉嚨痛、火氣大的燥熱體質者,可加少許生地、天花片,幫助降火氣。
    4. 有熬夜習慣者,則可加七葉膽2錢,強化保肝效果。

【小叮嚀】

補氣養精茶僅能做為平日保養之用,若專注力不集中、疲倦、失眠等症狀相當嚴重,甚至影響生活作息,建議還是找醫師瞭解病因,再予以正確的治療。

via 運動時滑手機 大腦缺氧易分心 | 20130907 | 華人健康網.

植化素補營養 提高鼻咽癌預後效果

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不同顏色的蔬果含有不同植化素,對人體的作用也不同,因此每天應均衡攝取多色蔬果。(圖片/本網站資料照片)

 

華人因經常食用醃漬或煙燻食物,罹患鼻咽癌的機率比歐美各國來得高,是國人常見癌症之一,但鼻咽癌只要經積極治療,復發機率約1成,營養師建議術後先補充足夠的營養,且多攝取含各類植化素的蔬果,增加抗氧化能力,降低癌症的威脅。

鼻咽癌的發生原因多與遺傳有關,但EB病毒感染、多食用醃漬食物、空氣污染或吸菸等因素,也會加重發作風險。患者常有耳鳴、聽力受損、頸部不明原因的腫塊,鼻水或痰中帶有血絲、腦神經異常等症狀。

鼻咽癌非絕症 補充植化素助抗癌

大千綜合醫院營養室營養師黃珮茹表示,鼻咽癌並不是絕症,是一種可以控制及治癒的癌症,經正規治療後,病人多數能夠恢復而返回工作崗位。由於鼻咽癌多以放射治療為主,普遍會有口乾、口腔黏膜受損、口腔潰瘍、味覺改變、噁心嘔吐、食慾不振、體重減輕等副作用,故充足的營養為非常重要的一環,若營養補充不足則其預後也較差。

好的營養補給,可先從植化素開始。植化素是近年來營養學界積極推廣的營養概念,依據蔬果的種類和顏色不同,分別含有不同植化素,對健康的好處也有不同,但綜合來說,植化素具有調節免疫功能、增加抗氧化能力、抗發炎和抗菌、抑制癌細胞訊息傳導等作用,建議每天均衡攝取紅色、橙色及橘黃色、綠色、紫色、白色等天然蔬果,補充各類植化素。

均衡營養的飲食可幫助癌症患者增加抵抗力,提高預後效果。

均衡營養的飲食可幫助癌症患者增加抵抗力,提高預後效果。

 

營養均衡 六大類食物不可少

除了多吃新鮮的天然蔬果之外,鼻咽癌的飲食也要注意六大類飲食均衡,每天攝取全穀根莖類約1.5至4碗、低脂乳品類1.5至2杯、豆魚肉蛋類3至8份、蔬菜類3至5碟、水果類2至4份、油脂3至7茶匙與堅果種子類1份等六大類食物,少量多餐,鼓勵進食。

若無法攝取固體食物,黃珮茹營養師建議多補充軟質或流質的食物,以增加熱量的攝取,例如米湯、豆漿、蔬果汁、牛奶或商業均衡配方等。若可漸漸增加攝食量,以什錦粥、蔬果泥或軟質食物為主,且以少量多餐的方式達到一日所需的熱量。不過,飲食需避免刺激的香辛料、酸、醃漬、油煎油炸的食物,也建議避免過多粗纖維、過硬的食物。

【示範食譜一:莧菜吻魚粥】

  • 材料:白飯100克、莧菜30克、吻仔魚30克、紅蘿蔔10克、香菇10克、芹菜末10克、鹽少許。
  • 作法:將材料洗淨,切成小塊,放入碗中在放置電鍋蒸煮約20分鐘,再以鹽調味即可。

【示範食譜二:南瓜豆腐】

  • 材料:南瓜50克、豆腐110克、紅蘿蔔10克、鹽少許
  • 作法:
    1. 將南瓜洗淨、蒸熟、搗碎備用。
    2. 將南瓜泥加入紅蘿蔔丁以鹽調味,捏成型放置於豆腐上,在放入電鍋中蒸約10分鐘即可。

via 植化素補營養 提高鼻咽癌預後效果 | 20130907 | 華人健康網.

頭昏眼花 3養血藥膳調理低血壓

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低血壓與身體造血量不足有關,中醫師認為透過食療的方式,可改善氣血循環、血壓太低的症狀。

 

一遇到頭昏眼花、全身無力,許多人以為是貧血的問題,但當心也可能是低血壓所致,輕忽可能比高血壓更危險,嚴重時會導致休克。對於血壓普遍偏低的民眾,中醫師建議平日可攝取具有養血補血、健脾補腎作用的藥膳,改善循環不好、氣血兩虛的症狀。

造血量不足 好發低血壓

中醫師陳玫妃表示,低血壓是指自體造血量不足,血液在血管中的壓力太低,加上氣血循環差,常有頭暈、頭痛、疲勞、食慾差、手腳冰冷、疲倦、注意力不集中、胸悶、脹氣、心悸、喘氣等症狀。

以上症狀與因貧血症狀類似,但貧血是因血紅素不足、含氧量太低所致,且貧血常見臉色、眼瞼和指甲發白;反觀低血壓,則不一定會有臉色和嘴唇蒼白、沒血色的症狀。

原則上,低血壓的定義是指血壓低於正常值100/60毫米汞柱以下,多數時候沒有明顯症狀,容易讓人疏忽,但低血壓可能是脫水、心血管疾病、營養不良的症狀表現,不注意可能引發休克。

雞肉含有豐富蛋白質,是人體造血不可或缺的重要營養素。

雞肉含有豐富蛋白質,是人體造血不可或缺的重要營養素。

 

預防低血壓 養血前先補脾腎

對於慢性低血壓患者,陳玫妃中醫師建議養成定期量血壓的習慣,且多攝取富含鐵質的黃綠色蔬菜、維生素B群食材,提升身體的造血、養血功能,且善用黑豆、黑芝麻、山藥、蓮子、堅果類等食材,加強滋腎補脾,增加氣血循環和心血管功能,預防低血壓的產生。

【補血烏骨雞湯】

  • 材料:黃耆5錢、當歸1錢、烏骨雞的大雞腿1隻。
  • 作法:雞腿以熱水汆燙去血水後,加入藥材和水一起燉煮,煮熟即可。
  • 說明:黃耆可補氣,中醫認為「氣行則血行」,可改善氣血循環差的症狀;當歸可養血潤燥;雞腿可補充蛋白質,是人體造血時不可或缺的營養素。

【健脾補血牛肉湯】

  • 材料:山藥3錢、茯苓2錢、何首烏1.5錢、瘦牛肉200公克、生薑數片、鹽酒醋適量。
  • 作法:將藥材洗淨後,連同其他材料和水放入電鍋中隔水燉煮,煮熟即可。
  • 說明:山藥和苻苓具有補脾腎的作用,牛肉含有豐富鐵質、而少量的醋可促進鈣質吸收。

【川芎蓮子甜湯】

  • 材料:蓮子3錢、芍藥2錢、川芎2錢、紅糖10公克、水1000c.c.。
  • 作法:蓮子先煮熟變軟後,加入其他藥材和紅糖,一起燜煮入味,放溫即可食用。
  • 說明:蓮子健脾補腎,芍藥養肝血、川芎可活血行血,紅糖可補血、鐵質和其他微量礦物質。

via 頭昏眼花 3養血藥膳調理低血壓 | 20130908 | 華人健康網.

Viewpoint: The invisible plague of concussion

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Traumatic brain injury is a hidden epidemic in the US, reaching beyond American football to wounded military veterans and girls’ soccer players. Neurosurgeon Dr Anand Veeravagu outlines concussion’s potentially devastating side effects.

 

It is all too common for patients to tell me that they have been knocked out while playing sports or in an accident. But the consequences of concussion, or “getting your bell rung” as the disarmingly quaint expression goes, can prove disastrous.

As Chief Neurosurgery Resident at the Palo Alto Veterans Hospital, I’ve treated many of our nation’s service members, some of whom came home with injuries that changed their lives forever.

I will always remember in particular one US Army soldier in my care. Mitch (not his real name) was nearing the end of his deployment in Afghanistan when his convoy was hit by a roadside bomb.

His vehicle’s heavy armour shielded most of his body from the blast and saved his life. But it did little to protect his brain. Despite the very latest in helmet technology, the powerful shock waves of such a blast hitting a vehicle often wreak havoc on soft brain tissue.

At a battlefield hospital in Afghanistan, Mitch underwent an emergency procedure called a decompressive craniectomy, where surgeons removed a 13-in (33-cm) piece of his skull to help make room for uncontrollable brain swelling.


Concussion graphic

What is concussion?

Concussion is an abnormal brain function that results from an external blast, jolt or impact to the head. Even if the knock does not result in a skull fracture, the brain can still experience a violent rattling that leads to injury.

What happens?

Because the brain is a soft gelatinous material surrounded by a rigid bony skull, such traumatic injuries can cause changes in brain function, such as bleeding, neuron damage and swelling.

Long-term effects

Research continues to demonstrate that repetitive concussions significantly increase the risk of permanent neurologic dysfunction, such as sustained memory loss, worsened concentration or prolonged headaches.

Do helmets help?

Definitely, but not completely. Though a helmet may prevent a fracture and absorb some of the impact, most of the force is still transmitted to the brain, whether one is riding a motorbike, playing sport or working on a building site.

What can be done?

Seek medical attention. People do not always know when they have suffered a concussion and it is crucial that a diagnosis be made. Both time and frequency are critical components of prognosis in cases of brain injury.

This is a fairly common strategy for treating patients with severe head injuries.

A similar surgery was performed on US Representative Gabrielle Giffords when she suffered a bullet wound to the head in 2011. After Asiana Flight 214 crashed in San Francisco in July, passengers who suffered blunt-force head trauma also underwent the operation.

I performed Mitch’s final surgery, a cranioplasty where we used special implants created by 3D printers to reconstruct the fragmented bones of his skull and restore the natural shape of his head.

The procedure also allowed him to ditch the heavy protective helmet he had to wear. Mitch came through the operation extraordinarily well.

His family pictures are now of him, without a helmet, embracing his children. Yet his injury is a stark reminder of how destructive brain injuries can be.

Mitch’s case, unfortunately, is just the tip of the iceberg. More than 260,000 of America’s veterans from Iraq and Afghanistan have been diagnosed with traumatic brain injury (TBI), the invisible wound of war.

And yet these numbers do not come close to capturing the extent of head injuries suffered by the wider American population.

This year alone, the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimates that over 1.7 million Americans will suffer a traumatic brain injury, whether a mild concussion or something more serious.

During the last decade, emergency room visits for sport- and recreation-related TBIs among children and adolescents increased by almost 60%.

After American football, girls’ soccer is the fastest-rising category of teenage TBI.

Brain injuries and neurological illnesses have been termed America’s silent epidemic.

 Double Olympic gold medallist rower James Cracknell tells how a brain injury changed his life

And it is not just a US problem – researchers in Canada recently reported that an estimated one in five teens had suffered a TBI that required admission to hospital or caused them to become unconscious for at least five minutes.

The saddest statistic is that many of these potentially life-altering injuries could have been prevented.

Every individual experiences a brain injury differently. Loss of consciousness, headaches, transient memory loss, slowed cognition, ringing in the ears and nausea are just a few of the symptoms that may or may not be present at the time of an injury.

Often, these symptoms are so abstract that the diagnosis of TBI proves elusive to patients, parents and doctors.

With increasing evidence indicating multiple brain injuries are related to depression and Alzheimer’s, the potential side effects of such symptoms are too grave to ignore.

The most powerful treatment for brain injuries is prevention and, failing that, early intervention. Rest, clinical exams and therapy are critical to restoring cognition, thinking and brain power. The earlier a concussion is recognised, the better the prognosis – something that is especially true in children.

The attention captured by the class-action lawsuit against the National Football League suggests the public is becoming increasingly concerned about the effects of repetitive brain injuries.

As the new NFL season gets under way this week, that legal action is currently working towards a $765m (£490m) settlement.

Dozens of US states have passed laws similar to one introduced in the US state of Washington in 2009, under which young athletes who suffer a suspected concussion in sport must be cleared by a medical professional before being allowed back to the game.

Until we as a nation appreciate the importance of brain health, America’s headache is unlikely to get better.

via BBC News – Viewpoint: The invisible plague of concussion.

A&E departments understaffed by nearly 10%, BBC survey suggests

_69661284_hi003376717
The average English A&E had 9.7% of its posts vacant in August 2013

England’s accident and emergency departments are understaffed on average by nearly 10%, a survey has suggested.

The 101 out of 166 hospital trusts which responded to a BBC 5 live Freedom of Information request had 1,260 vacant posts.

The picture was worst in London, with the largest proportion of vacancies found in four trusts in the capital.

The Department of Health said A&E staffing was an ongoing problem, but action was being taken.

A&E services came under extreme pressure last winter and the government’s four-hour waiting time target was regularly breached.

This was partly as a result of more patients coming through the door, but also because of problems recruiting staff.

 Mike Farrar: “We’ve seen unprecedented levels already this year and we simply have to plan now”

Permanent staff ‘difficult’

Up to 43% of posts were unfilled in Barking, Havering and Redbridge University Hospitals NHS trust.

It has A&Es on two sites, and indicated in its response that of the 302 staff it thinks it requires, it is short of 12 consultants, 41 doctors and 75 nurses.

The trust’s chief executive, Averil Dongworth, said: “We are working hard to recruit more permanent staff to our emergency departments.

“With A&E consultants largely able to pick and choose their employer, this can make it difficult to attract permanent staff.”

The next three trusts with the largest proportion of vacant posts were Croydon Health Services, Ealing, and North West London Hospitals – but staffing shortages appear to be a nationwide issue.

Jennie Fecitt, lead nurse of campaign group Patients First, and an A&E nurse for 25 years, said this level of vacancies would have a “significant impact” on the safety and wellbeing of patients.

“A&E nurses are under horrendous pressure. They have got targets and short-staffing to consider. Some hospitals have got it right but they are few and far between,” she said.

‘In danger’

 Anna Soubry: “We inherited the system which unfortunately had been seriously underfunded by the last government.”

Separately, a nursing union poll found nine out of 10 nurses working in acute and emergency care believed current pressures on A&E services were putting patients in danger.

The Royal College of Nursing, which has 410,000 members, said its survey had found that 89% of nursing staff thought the people they were meant to be caring for were being put at risk, while 85% said patient safety was being compromised by the strain on the departments.

More than three-quarters (79%) cited increased attendances at A&E as the reason for increased pressure, while 74% blamed inappropriate attendances at A&E where patients could have been treated by primary care services or by calling NHS 111.


Are nurses working too hard to fill in the gaps?

Many hospitals use ‘bank staff’ to fill vacancies or cover sickness. These are often employees of the hospital, picking up extra shifts.

John Pollard, a coroner in South Manchester, wrote to the Health Secretary, Jeremy Hunt, in February 2013 about bank staff.

He said questions had been asked during an inquest about the ability of nurses to work a full week and then to work “quite considerable additional hours” as bank nurses.

In response, Jeremy Hunt said trusts would observe working time regulations, but that it was difficult for trusts to “control” nurses’ working hours, even if their bank shifts were arranged through the NHS’s in-house temping agency.

5 live Investigates found the average A&E department had 9.7% of its posts vacant as of August 2013.

The majority of empty posts were nursing jobs.

Many trusts use locums, bank and agency staff to fill gaps, but these typically come at a greater cost than permanent employees.

Sixteen of the 101 trusts which responded said they had more consultants, doctors and nurses than they had budgeted for.

Around a third of trusts with A&E units did not respond to the FOI request within 20 working days.

Dr Clifford Mann, president of the College of Emergency Medicine, described A&E staffing as a “crisis”.

“The college has received many reports for some time about the problems staffing emergency departments,” he said.

“The impact for patient care is that there are fewer doctors to see them, which means that most patients may have to wait longer than we would ideally wish them to wait, in order to be seen.

“There’s a delay in making key decisions and that in turn can have an implication for their recovery and wellbeing.”

Missed targets

 Andy Burnham: “Labour has been warning all year about the intense pressure on Accident and Emergency departments.”

Labour, which has carried out its own analysis of A&E waiting times over the first year of Jeremy Hunt’s year as health secretary, says major A&Es have missed waiting time targets in 41 of the 52 weeks.

Shadow health secretary Andy Burnham said cuts to council social care services had led to an increase in elderly patients turning up at to hospitals, and A&E departments had come under pressure because of difficulties with the new 111 telephone advice service and reductions in nursing jobs.

Speaking on BBC Breakfast, he said: “What I’m saying to the government is they must urgently get a grip on the underlying causes of this pressure and particularly ensure that all hospitals in England have enough staff to provide safe care.”

Health minister Anna Soubry said the government would be making an announcement on Tuesday on how £500m extra money would be used to help A&E departments.

She said A&E departments did some “outstanding work” and the reasons for staffing problems were “hugely complicated”.

Earlier, health minister Dr Dan Poulter said trusts were responsible for their own recruitment policies.

He said: “Recruiting and holding on to doctors in A&E has been a problem for over a decade – A&E is not a popular choice among trainees and in recent years less than 50% of the speciality training places available were taken.

“But earlier this year, the government took action by setting up the first ever independent body with a clear set of priorities to increase the number of A&E doctors and the number of medical students choosing A&E as a career.”

He added: “The new chief inspector of hospitals will be able to take action if hospitals are found to be compromising patient care by not having the right number or mix of staff on wards.”

BBC graphic

 

via BBC News – A&E departments understaffed by nearly 10%, BBC survey suggests.

GMC to check doctors’ English skills

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GPs are among those whose English language skills could be checked

 

The General Medical Council is to be given new powers to check the English-language skills of all doctors working in the UK, under government proposals.

At present it can only make language checks on doctors from outside Europe.

The government is carrying out a 12-week consultation on the changes.

In April, the government created a national list of doctors who can treat NHS patients. GPs wishing to be included will have to demonstrate their ability to speak English.

It also appointed senior doctors who have a legal duty to ensure all doctors in their local area can speak the necessary level of English to perform their job in a safe and competent manner.

On Saturday, Health Minister Dr Dan Poulter said: “Overseas doctors make a hugely valuable contribution to the NHS, but it is clear that tougher checks are needed.

“We have already strengthened the way doctors’ language skills are checked at a local level.

“These new powers are an important step in making the system even stronger by allowing the GMC to carry out checks on a national level before they start work in the UK and prevent doctors who do not have the necessary knowledge of English from treating patients.”

Niall Dickson, chief executive of the General Medical Council, said: “We are delighted.

“This is an important move that will help protect patients and will be welcomed across the country.”

via BBC News – GMC to check doctors’ English skills.

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