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Archive for September 5, 2013

寶寶發燒飲食要點 避開寒涼食物

寶寶發燒吃香蕉可幫助補充營養,但體質偏虛腸胃不好的話則要避免。(圖片提供/99健康網)

寶寶發燒吃香蕉可幫助補充營養,但體質偏虛腸胃不好的話則要避免。(圖片提供/99健康網)

寶寶發燒不能吃什麼?那麼孩子發燒能吃香蕉嗎?關於孩子發燒後的飲食很多家長都不清楚。一起來了解下。寶寶發燒是寶寶在成長過程中經常都會出現的,是人體對疾病的一種防禦反應。

寶寶低度發熱,體溫介於37~38.5℃之間,對身體危害不大,對某些疾病,還有助於病體康復,故不必採取特別的降溫退熱措施。但中度發熱(體溫38.5~39℃)及高度發熱(體溫超過39℃)若持續時間過長,則可引起機體的損害,尤其是對中樞神經系統有不利的影響,故須採取措施,及早治療,細心護理。對待寶寶發燒,除了對症治療,物理降溫外,在飲食上的精心護理也是很必要的。

寶寶發燒不能吃什麼?

大家都知道寶寶發燒後不能吃雞蛋,雞蛋後會產生一定的額外熱量,使機體熱量增高,進而加劇寶寶身體發熱;寶寶發燒後也不能吃蜂蜜,蜂蜜是益氣補中的補品,如果多服用蜂蜜,會使寶寶內熱得不到很好的清理和消除,還容易並發其他病症;寶寶發燒後不能吃桔子,雖說桔皮有止咳化痰的效果,但是桔肉易生熱生痰,寶寶是不可能吃桔皮不吃桔肉的;寶寶發燒也不能吃辛辣寒涼食物,如果過於辛辣,會以熱助熱,加重病情,不利於退熱與早日康復。如果是因為腸道感染引發的發燒,那麼冷飲會使胃腸道功能下降,加重腸道疾病。

那麼寶寶發燒後能吃香蕉嗎?

香蕉是寒性水果,屬於涼性食物,可以降火,並有助於腸胃消化。當有腹脹或便秘時,食用香蕉可以有效改善。但是需要注意的是,有脾虛現象,或體質較虛寒,有手腳發冷現象的人則不宜食用香蕉。

孩子感冒發燒的時候最好少給孩子吃涼的東西,所以寶寶發燒後最好不要吃香蕉,而且香蕉促進排便,如果寶寶還有拉肚子的情況,更加不宜食用。

寶寶發燒後宜吃什麼?

寶寶發燒飲食要清淡,易消化,並含有豐富的維生素。一般以流質或半流質食物為主,如米湯、稀飯、麵條、藕粉等,並搭配一些新鮮水果。蛋白質是身體修復的必需物質,在抱寶寶退燒後,可以食用清雞湯麵片、菜泥粥等半流質食物。到病情恢復後期可以多補充瘦肉、魚、豆腐等高蛋白食物,有利於早日恢復健康。另外,寶寶發燒後,補充水分是很關鍵的,但是不能直接食用白開水,因寶寶退燒後伴隨大量出汗,所以必須及時補充含電解質的鹽水、糖水,補水鹽液等。

via 寶寶發燒飲食要點 避開寒涼食物 | 20130905 | 華人健康網.

為何睡眠很重要?保護大腦免受傷害

睡眠不僅是幫助身體消除疲勞、放鬆精神,對於大腦細胞修復增生也有不可或缺的幫助。

睡眠不僅是幫助身體消除疲勞、放鬆精神,對於大腦細胞修復增生也有不可或缺的幫助。

每個人都知道,睡眠不足會對身體與精神狀況產生負面影響,但從科學角度來看,睡眠為何對人體如此重要,依然是個問號。如今科學家終於在這方面有了新突破,最新研究發現,睡眠有助於大腦中特殊細胞的增生,可保護人體大腦迴路免受侵害。

睡眠充足 腦細胞才有時間修復

根據英國廣播公司《BBC》報導,威斯康辛大學(University of Wisconsin)研究團隊在老鼠實驗中,觀察到在睡眠周期的「快速動眼期」製造髓鞘(myelin)的寡樹突細胞(oligodendrocytes) 生長數量加倍,而此種細胞正是幫助大腦修復與神經傳導的重要物質。

發表於「神經科學」期刊的內容指出,髓鞘是人體大腦中的一種神經絕緣物質,可以幫助增加神經訊號的傳導速率,與髓鞘最有密切相關的疾病就是「多發性硬化症」(MS),多發性硬化症是因為在中樞神經產生塊狀的髓鞘脫失而產生的疾病。因此,這項研究結果將有助於進一步了解多發性硬化症的成因與解決之道,探討睡眠不足是否有可能引發多發性硬化症。

除此之外,當身體在需要睡眠的狀態下被迫保持清醒時,體內和細胞死亡以及壓力反應有關的基因就會顯得較活躍,影響健康。這也可以呼應過去研究發現睡眠不足會導致負面情緒增加、記憶力變差、免疫力下降的原因。

 

睡眠不足也會影響到上班工作的效率。(圖片/華人健康網)

睡眠不足也會影響到上班工作的效率。(圖片/華人健康網)

 

睡眠不足壞處多 小心容易變胖

  • 記憶力退化,常忘東忘西。
  • 注意力難集中,辦事效率低落。
  • 青少年發育遲緩,晚年心臟病風險增。
  • 抵抗力衰退,容易感冒。
  • 新陳代謝變差,容易發胖。
  • 易焦躁、憂鬱,影響生活品質。

規律睡眠時間表 助掌握優質睡眠

想要睡得好,美國睡眠醫學會(aasmnet)也提供了幾點簡單建議,首先是要規劃好睡眠時間表,每天定時上床睡覺、起床,午睡時間則以30分鐘為宜,避免睡太久晚上反而失眠。此外,假日不要養成睡到自然醒的習慣,容易打亂生理時鐘讓作息失調,寧願維持早起習慣,到了下午再小憩片刻,如此一來才能掌握優質睡眠。

via 為何睡眠很重要?保護大腦免受傷害 | 20130905 | 華人健康網.

3天蔬果排毒餐 高纖順暢助減重

蔬菜水果包含了人體大部分的必需營養素,美國「臨床營養學期刊」的研究報告就曾發現,一天吃到5份蔬果的人還可以讓心情更快樂,而對於想要瘦身減重的人來說,蔬果更是幫助增加飽足感、又不易發胖的好選擇。國外「Live Strong」網站提供了一則蔬果排毒餐,連續3天只吃蔬果,不但可幫助攝取充足的蔬果量,還能促進代謝、排毒,開啟瘦身契機。
選高纖蔬菜水果,有助於排淨體內毒素,清淨腸胃。

選高纖蔬菜水果,有助於排淨體內毒素,清淨腸胃。

 

蔬果排毒好處:營養豐富、不用挨餓

蔬果排毒餐的重點在於利用蔬菜、水果的豐富纖維,增進腸道蠕動、排除體內老廢堆積毒素,同時攝取足夠的人體必需維生素營養。在排毒過程的3天內,要謹記不能碰含咖啡因、刺激物質的食物,例如咖啡、酒精以及過量糖、鹽分或精製麵粉。此排毒餐並不嚴格規定三餐都只能喝流質食物,主要是著重在蔬果攝取。

排毒餐選高纖食物 芹菜蘋果燕麥等

起床後,泡一杯高纖穀麥片當做早餐,燕麥、糙米和藜都是可以提供多種礦物質與膳食纖維的食物。午、晚餐的蔬菜類可選擇蘆筍、菠菜、甘藍、芹菜,這些都是含有豐富纖維及維生素的蔬菜,水果類則以蘋果、莓果類最優,蘋果含有豐富果膠,可減少膽固醇、穩定血糖,莓果類則是有豐富抗氧化物質。如果覺得嘴饞,可以吃一點堅果、杏仁,補充維生素E及健康油脂。

 

蘋果含有豐富果膠,可以幫助清除血管雜質,達到排毒效果。

蘋果含有豐富果膠,可以幫助清除血管雜質,達到排毒效果。

 

吃排毒餐循序漸進 改善體內環境

如果平常不常攝取蔬果的人,剛開始嘗試這套排毒餐時,可能會出現脹氣、消化不順的可能,另外平常有喝咖啡或常吃甜食的人也有可能因此出現戒斷性症狀如頭痛;最好在開始的前一周就漸漸改變飲食習慣,不要一下子貿然採取排毒餐而造成身體不適。

另外,為身體排毒自然會有體重下降的現象,不過3天的排毒餐並不能帶來長久的減肥效果,也不適合作為長期飲食型態,僅能當作清理體內毒素、達到淨化效果,並改變腸胃吸收及不良飲食習慣,之後再靠運動、飲食控管減肥,也會較容易成功。

via 3天蔬果排毒餐 高纖順暢助減重 | 20130905 | 華人健康網.

慢跑太累易放棄?綠茶打擊運動疲勞

全民「瘋」慢跑,但有醫師擔心慢跑熱潮將會泡沬化。根據一項調查發現,有接觸慢跑活動的民眾中,每4人中就有1人因疲勞感而放棄慢跑;另有7成慢跑新手,在3個月內,會因疲勞感放棄持續慢跑;面對慢跑者所產生的疲勞感症候群,專家建議,平日可透過喝茶來攝取兒茶素,幫助脂肪代謝,減緩肝醣消耗與疲勞感生成,以助維持規律運動習慣。(影音/攝影記者楊伯康)

 
慢跑這幾年已是全民運動,但有醫師擔心慢跑熱潮將會泡沬化。

慢跑這幾年已是全民運動,但有醫師擔心慢跑熱潮將會泡沬化。

 

慢跑好處多多,對健康有加分效果,特別是台灣近年蔚為流行,成長最為快速的運動非慢跑莫屬,據統計,台灣地區各大慢跑活動,2011年計有89場,2012上升為168場,今年更多達243場,路跑活動報名人次屢創記錄,頗有新全民運動的態勢。

慢跑新手 熬不過3個月

為更深入了解民眾是否養成正確運動習慣,復健科陳易進醫師近日進行「慢跑習慣與運動疲勞認知調查」。結果顯示,7成慢跑新手撐不過3個月即放棄,更有8成慢跑新手因「耐力差、容易累」而放棄這項運動;顯示國內民眾的慢跑行為,因無法建立持續的運動習慣,使得慢跑熱潮恐有泡沫化疑慮。

陳易進醫師解釋,運動過程中,疲勞感與耐力降低的成因有二,其一為運動時會消耗肌肉中的肝醣作為能量來源,當肝醣含量降低時,肌肉會發出訊息給大腦,警告人體體力已達極限。大腦會傳遞訊息,要求降低運動強度與速度,進而影響運動時的耐力。其二為肝醣代謝後會造成乳酸累積,酸性物質導致肌肉的痠痛不適感。

【對抗運動疲勞4建議】:

1.保持充足睡眠:要養成早睡早起的習慣,而且每天最少要熟睡7至8小時,才能確保完全恢復疲勞。

2.作足暖身運動:暖身運動的時間大約10至15分鐘左右,應將全身主要的肌肉群及肌腱伸展開來,使身體及心理上對於較激烈的運動更有準備。

3.適度肌肉按摩:可以促進血液循環,加速疲勞消除及機能的恢復。負擔量最大的部位,應是按摩的重點,肌肉部位以揉捏為主,可緩解壓力。

4.增加能量飲食:疲勞時注應多補充能量和維生素,尤其是糖、維生素C及B1,夏季或出汗較多時,應補充鹽分,或是碳水化合物。並儘量多吃些新鮮蔬菜、水果等鹼性食物。

 

研究證實,慢跑後喝綠茶能有效緩解運動疲倦感。(照片/張世節攝影)

研究證實,慢跑後喝綠茶能有效緩解運動疲倦感。(照片/張世節攝影)

 

兒茶素:可緩解疲勞感

而面對運動疲勞,增加肝醣的來源是普遍的認知。台灣營養基金會營養博士吳映蓉則提出另一種利用增加替代能源來減緩疲勞的方式,也就是透過喝綠茶攝取兒茶素,能增加肌肉能量來源從脂肪代謝的比重,節省肝醣的消耗,進而可延緩疲勞感的生成。

綠茶萃取:提生運動耐力

據《美國生理學期刊》研究顯示,連續10周運動訓練搭配綠茶萃取物攝取後,實驗組老鼠在跑步時間上,比未攝取綠茶萃取物的控制組增加30%。實驗組老鼠的肌肉肝醣流失量較控制組減少84%。同時血漿乳酸濃度亦較控制組低15%;脂肪酸氧化活性也較控制組提升35%。顯示兒茶素在增加運動耐力上的正向表現。

【營養博士觀點】:

依據茶葉種類分析,綠茶中的兒茶素含量最高,其次是烏龍茶,最少則是紅茶;而想提升運動耐力,除了平日可保持喝茶習慣,讓兒茶素作用提昇脂肪代謝比例,民眾除了自己自製茶飲之外,更方便的方式可透過市售茶飲成分標示,挑選兒茶素含量較高的產品飲用。

在運動前,可透過攝取低GI的碳水化合物,如烤番薯、全麥麵包等食物作為醣類補充,並搭配綠茶飲用,讓慢跑運動時的表現更佳。

via 慢跑太累易放棄?綠茶打擊運動疲勞 | 20130904 | 華人健康網.

‘App’ helps predict if lung lesions seen on CT are cancerous or benign: study

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Dr. Stephen Lam, chair of the Provincial Lung Tumour Group at the B.C. Cancer Agency, and patient Chris Douglas, a former smoker whose cancerous lung tumour was detected during annual CT screening. THE CANADIAN PRESS/ho-BC Cancer Agency

 

TORONTO – Canadian researchers have developed a software app that they hope will improve lung cancer screening around the world.

The risk-calculating software can predict with a high level of accuracy whether lesions, or nodules, in the lungs detected on a CT scan are likely to be malignant or benign.

That can help doctors determine whether a patient at high risk for lung cancer is likely to need an invasive biopsy or surgery, said co-principal investigator Dr. Stephen Lam, chair of the Provincial Lung Tumour Group at the B.C. Cancer Agency.

“We already know that CT screening saves lives,” said Lam. “Now we have evidence that our model and risk calculator can accurately predict which abnormalities that show up on a first CT require further followup … and which ones do not.”

The software was developed by Martin Tammemagi, an epidemiologist at Brock University in St. Catharines, Ont., and a member of the cross-Canada research team whose findings from two studies are reported in this week’s issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

“One of the goals of the model is to help reduce the number of needless tests,” Tammemagi said in a statement. “When we can identify with accuracy that a person’s nodule has low probability for lung cancer, then they’ll receive followups that include fewer CT screens, less biopsies and less surgery.

“That will help minimize needless risk to the individual and needless suffering.”

To determine whether a spot seen on a CT of a current or former smoker is likely to be malignant, doctors feed information into the app. That data includes the size and density of the nodule and where in the lung it is located; the age and sex of the patient; and such clinical details as whether the person has emphysema or a family history of the disease.

“Then we get a risk index calculated within a couple of minutes,” Lam said Wednesday from Vancouver. “It’s accurate nine in 10 times.” That’s for small nodules; in larger lesions, the accuracy rate is even higher — 97 per cent, he said.

Their research showed that while nodule size is one predictor of lung cancer, the largest nodule appearing on a CT among study participants was not necessarily cancerous. The researchers found that nodules located in the upper lobes of the lung carry an increased probability of cancer.

“Essentially, in the first CT, over 20 per cent of the participants in a screening program would be found to have one or more abnormal spots on the CT scan,” said Lam. “But only a few per cent would be cancerous.”

The studies involved almost 3,000 current and former smokers aged 50 to 75, who had more than 12,000 lung nodules in total detected by CT scans. Of those, 144 were found to be cancerous. Participants were part of one of two studies, the first of which followed patients for three years, while the second averaged 8.5 years of followup.

One of those patients is Chris Douglas of Vancouver, who smoked for about 40 years and was only able to quit once he enrolled in the study six years ago.

When his third annual CT scan showed that a nodule in his lower right lung was getting larger and denser, doctors performed a biopsy and determined the lesion was cancerous, Douglas said.

He wasn’t surprised.

“I knew I was engaging in risky behaviour,” said Douglas, 65. “I had seen the result of smoking in my parents’ generation and in my own. It can be very aggressive by the time it’s diagnosed.

“I was almost more relieved that I’d been offered the opportunity for early detection.”

He had surgery to remove the area in his lung that contained the tumour, and subsequent CT scans have turned up no evidence of new potentially cancerous nodules.

The retired health services consultant swims five days a week and said he’s never felt better, in part because he’s no longer smoking. “The lung study has saved my life.”

There are no Canadian guidelines to tell doctors which patients should be screened for lung cancer or how often that screening should be done.

In July, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force issued a draft recommendation that people at high risk for lung cancer receive annual low-dose computed tomography, or CT, scans.

In Canada, there are no formal lung screening programs funded by the provinces and territories, as there are for breast and colorectal cancer, even though CT scans have been shown to reduce lung cancer deaths by 20 per cent, Lam said.

“So this is a big finding, that we can actually do something to reduce lung cancer mortality significantly,” he said. “That’s why we hope that lung cancer screening will be implemented in Canada at the population level.”

The studies were funded by the Terry Fox Research Institute, the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer and the U.S. Public Health Service National Cancer Institute.

Lung cancer kills more than 20,000 Canadians annually and is the leading cause of cancer death in Canada for both men and women, according to Canadian Cancer Society statistics.

via ‘App’ helps predict if lung lesions seen on CT are cancerous or benign: study.

Roasted Sweet Potatoes with Speck and Chimichurri

roasted-sweet-potatoes-with-speck-and-chimichurri

INGREDIENTS

4 small sweet potatoes, unpeeled, cut lengthwise into wedges

2 Tbsp. plus ¼ cup olive oil

½ cup fresh cilantro leaves with tender stems

½ cup fresh flat-leaf parsley leaves

¼ cup fresh oregano leaves

1 Tbsp. fresh thyme leaves

2 garlic cloves

2 Tbsp. red wine vinegar

2 oz. thinly sliced Speck or prosciutto, torn

Kosher salt and freshly ground black pepper

PREPARATION

 

  • Heat oven to 425°. Toss sweet potatoes and 2 Tbsp. oil on a large rimmed baking sheet; season with salt and pepper. Roast, turning once, until tender, 25–30 minutes.
  • Meanwhile, pulse cilantro, parsley, oregano, thyme, and garlic in a food processor until finely chopped. With motor running, slowly add vinegar and remaining ¼ cup oil and process until combined; season with salt and pepper.
  • Spoon chimichurri onto a serving platter and top with sweet potatoes and Speck.

via Roasted Sweet Potatoes with Speck and Chimichurri – Bon Appétit.

Video game helps elderly keep their minds sharp

a-japanese-video-game-fan
A video game fan plays Sony’s portable videogame console at a shop in Tokyo, Japan. (AFP/Yoshikazu Tsuno)

A video game can help elderly people fight cognitive decline, scientists reported in the journal Nature on Wednesday.

PARIS: A video game can help elderly people fight cognitive decline, scientists reported in the journal Nature on Wednesday.

The novel game shows the brain is more “plastic,” or versatile, in healthy ageing people than thought, which opens up new paths for warding off mental decay, its inventors said.

Devised by researchers at the University of California at San Francisco, NeuroRacer requires participants to race a car around a winding road while a series of road signs pop up.

Drivers are told to keep alert for a specific kind of road sign, and to press a button when it appears.

The point is to encourage multitasking, an ability that typically goes into dramatic decline as we age.

The investigators recruited volunteers aged 60-85 years old and trained them on a laptop for 12 hours, spread over a month.

Rather basic in looks, the 3D game had hidden complexities, pushing participants to go further once they had mastered a skill.

By the end of their training, the group were as good at the game as people in their 20s who were playing it for the first time. Six months later the skills of the elderly participants were just as good.

The improvement not only boosted the ability to cope with several tasks at the same time.

It also enhanced working memory and sustained attention.

“The finding is a powerful example of how plastic the older brain is,” said Adam Gazzaley, an associate professor of neurology at the university.

While they trained on the game, the participants wore caps with sensors that measured activity in various parts of the brain.

The intriguing picture that emerged was a boost in a key electrical signature in the pre-frontal cortex, and its linkage to the brain’s frontal and posterior regions.

As the older participants got better and better at the game, this cerebral network strengthened, adding to evidence that they able to focus on a multiple task for longer.

Asked to comment, Emil Toescu, an experimental neurologist at Britain’s University of Birmingham, said the work showed important differences with past research.

“We have known for some time that ‘you can teach an old dog new tricks,’ as the brain can learn and improve,” Toescu told the Science Media Centre in London.

“The main problem is that the improved cognitive performance is specific to the one repeated task – you can end up with specialist elders who are great at number-crunching or word recognition but don’t have a significant improvement in their daily life cognitive performance.”

This is where the new experiments are interesting, he said.

“(It) shows that if you multitask during a specific training routine, it improves performance with more than just that single task. The improvement is transferred to other cognitive domains.”

Gazzaley has co-founded a company that is developing the next generation of the game, the university said in a press release.

– AFP/de

via Video game helps elderly keep their minds sharp – Channel NewsAsia.

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