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Archive for April 9, 2013

Seared Steak Lettuce Cups

Seared Steak Lettuce Cups

  • INGREDIENT INFO

    Asian sweet chili sauce is available at Asian markets, many supermarkets, and amazon.com.

PREPARATION

  • Combine 1/4 cup finely chopped English hothouse or Persian cucumber, 1/4 cup thinly sliced scallions, 1 1/2 tablespoons fresh lime juice, and 1 teaspoon finely grated peeled ginger in a medium bowl. Season to taste with kosher salt and set aside.
  • Heat a grill pan or a lightly oiled cast-iron skillet over high heat. Season an 8-ounce flank steak with 1/2 teaspoon salt and 1/4 teaspoon chili powder. Grill steak, turning once, until charred on both sides, about 8 minutes for medium-rare. Transfer to a cutting board and let rest for 10 minutes.
  • Arrange 16 small crunchy inner leaves of butter lettuce, romaine, or endive on a large platter. Thinly slice steak against the grain, then cut slices crosswise into 1-inch pieces. Add steak to cucumber mixture and toss to mix. Season to taste with salt and more lime juice, if desired.
  • Divide steak salad among lettuce cups; garnish with 2 tablespoons chopped salted roasted peanuts and 2 tablespoons thinly sliced fresh mint leaves. Drizzle with Asian sweet chili sauce.

Read Morehttp://www.bonappetit.com/recipes/2012/10/seared-steak-lettuce-cups#ixzz2PxyzjJxT

MYMEETINGPRO HD – MMP, THE EFFECTIVE MEETING APP

mymeetingprohd

MyMeetingPro HD – MMP, THE Effective Meeting AppUniversal (Optimized for both the iPad and iPhone) (4stars with 24 Ratings)

$6.99

Free Offer Ended. This app was free on April 4, 2013, but the offer has expired. Follow us on Twitter or Subscribe byemail or RSS feed to get daily App Gone Free notifications so you won’t miss it next time. The following impression was made during the promotional period.
With MyMeetingPro HD, you can plan your meetings ahead of time by generating an agenda and other details. Your meeting information are also automatically added to your default calendar app so everything such as the date, time and location is in sync. You can also pull attendees from your contacts or create new ones. During your meetings, the app allows you to take meeting minutes or notes organized by agenda items. You can also record up to 2 hours of audio per meeting. With the iPad you can also handwrite notes as necessary. After the meeting, the meeting notes can be easily distribute to attendees via email in PDF format. MyMeetingPro has lots of excellent features to help you during meetings. Take this app with you to a meeting next time and try it out.

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Welsh bee decline action plan to promote allotments

Bee
Ministers say the loss of bees is ‘real threat’ to wildlife and food production

Encouraging green spaces, gardens and allotments to boost Wales’ bee population is part of a new action plan to halt a fall in numbers.

Welsh ministers want to see more effort to link up flowering habitats across the countryside from gardens to farms.

The value of pollinators to the UK government is estimated to be £430m a year, but populations have been on the decline for 30 years.

Public consultation on the draft plan will last until 4 June.

The Welsh government said at the Royal Welsh Show in Powys in 2012 that it would produce an action plan to protect endangered insect pollinators – such as honey bees, bumble bees, hoverflies and butterflies.

The subsequent review has looked at the reasons for the insects’ decline.

Lampeter Allotment site
The draft proposals include ensuring the provision of allotments to encourage pollinating insects

The draft action plan announced on Tuesday proposes:

  • Ensuring farming schemes support land management practices that protect pollinators
  • Revising guidance to National Parks and Areas of Outstanding National Beauty so r land management better supports pollinator populations
  • Ensuring and supporting the provision of green spaces and allotments across Wales
  • Promoting pollinator-friendly gardening
  • Working with schools to raise awareness among pupils of the importance of pollinators
  • Issuing best practice guidance to councils

Natural Resources Minister Alun Davies said the decline in pollinators “poses a real threat to Wales’ wildlife” and could also affect the country’s capacity to produce food.

He said pollinators were vital but populations had been declining for 30 years, with the trend set to continue without prompt action.

“There has been a great deal of interest in our work to protect pollinator populations in Wales,” said Mr Davies.

“The draft action plan sets out our vision for the best way forward and I would urge anyone with an interest to consider the content of the plan and feed back their comments.

“Pollinators are vital to our future health and well being so it is important that we all work together to get this plan right.”

Friends of the Earth Cymru director Gareth Clubb welcomed the plan as forward-thinking but said ministers should press for powers to ban pesticides from Westminster.

“The Welsh government must discuss devolution of these controls immediately if we are to have decent protection for Welsh bees,” he said.

BBC – http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-22073480

‘Aggressive’ prostate cancer gene find

DNA
Genetics appear to dictate how the cancer behaves

 

Men with prostate cancer and an inherited gene mutation have the worst form of the disease, research reveals.

The BRCA2 gene is linked to hereditary breast cancer, as well as prostate and ovarian cancer.

Now scientists say that as well as being more likely to get prostate cancer, men with BRCA2 are also more likely to develop aggressive tumours and have the poorest survival rates.

They say these men should be treated quickly to save lives.


This study shows that doctors need to consider treating men with prostate cancer and a faulty BRCA2 gene much sooner than they currently do, rather than waiting to see how the disease develops”

Prof Ros EelesLead researcher

Around one in every 100 men with prostate cancer will have the BRCA2 mutation.

These men might benefit from immediate surgery or radiotherapy, even if their disease is at an early stage and would normally be classified as low risk, according to the latest work in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Diverse disease

Prostate cancer can grow extremely slowly or very quickly, and this is something that is hard to predict early on.

Some men may live symptom-free for a lifetime, despite having this cancer.

For many, treatment is not immediately necessary.

But researchers say men with BRCA2 and prostate cancer should be treated early and aggressively because their tumour is more likely to spread.

Prof Ros Eeles and colleagues at The Institute of Cancer Research in London and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust found prostate cancers spread more quickly and were more often fatal in men who had inherited a faulty BRCA2 gene than in men without the faulty gene.


Prostate cancer

  • The prostate is a small gland in the pelvis found only in men. It’s job is to make the fluid part of semen that sperm swim in
  • Prostate cancer does not normally cause symptoms until the cancer has grown large enough to affect surrounding structures like the urethra that carries urine from the bladder
  • This can lead to problems passing urine – needing to pee more often or difficulty starting to urinate
  • Prostate cancer can be diagnosed by taking a biopsy (a small tissue sample of the prostate gland)
  • Some men may be advised to delay having treatment if the tumour is very slow growing and not causing any problems
  • Others may want to have surgery to remove the entire prostate

They looked at the medical records of prostate cancer patients which included 61 men with BRCA2, 18 men with a similar gene mutation called BRCA1, and 1,940 men with neither mutations.

Patients with BRCA2-mutations were significantly less likely to survive their cancer, living an average of 6.5 years after diagnosis compared with 12.9 years for non-carriers. They were also more likely to have advanced disease at the time of diagnosis.

‘More deadly type’

Prof Eeles said: “It is clear from our study that prostate cancers linked to inheritance of the BRCA2 cancer gene are more deadly than other types.

“It must make sense to start offering affected men immediate surgery or radiotherapy, even for early-stage cases that would otherwise be classified as low-risk.

“We won’t be able to tell for certain that earlier treatment can benefit men with inherited cancer genes until we’ve tested it in a clinical trial, but the hope is that our study will ultimately save lives by directing treatment at those who most need it.”

More than 40,000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer every year.

Men with a significant family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer in addition to prostate cancer can be offered BRCA1/2 testing at diagnosis, but it is not routinely offered to all patients diagnosed with prostate cancer in the UK.

Dr Julie Sharp of Cancer Research UK, said: “This study shows that doctors need to consider treating men with prostate cancer and a faulty BRCA2 gene much sooner than they currently do, rather than waiting to see how the disease develops.

“We knew that men who inherit a faulty BRCA2 gene are at a greater risk of developing prostate cancer but this is the largest study to show that the faulty gene also makes the disease more likely to develop quickly and spread.”

BBC – http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-22065289#?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter

Scientists track leukaemia’s origins ‘back to the womb’

Cancerous white blood cells of ALL
Cancerous white blood cells

 

Scientists say they have traced the root genetic cause of leukaemia back to early life in the womb.

The Institute of Cancer Research experts analysed the entire three billion letter sequence of DNA-coding in identical twins to reveal what sets off the disease.

They hope the findings, published in PNAS journal, could lead to new drugs to fight the condition at source.

Leukaemia is the most common cancer diagnosed in children.

It affects a third of young cancer sufferers and kills 100 children a year in the UK.


It told us for the first time that this is the key mutation that starts the whole process of leukaemia”

Researcher Prof Mel Greaves

The twins studied by the researchers had the most common form of leukaemia that affects children – acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) which is a cancer of the white blood cells.

It is already known that multiple faulty genes are linked to the condition and that environmental factors probably act as triggers along the way. But the precise sequence of events leading up to a diagnosis of ALL is unclear.

Root cause

The researchers wanted to find out more about the disease so that, ultimately, a better treatment could be found.

Although ALL is often curable, the medicines used to treat it can cause unpleasant and sometimes severe side effects.

Prof Mel Greaves and his colleagues decided to study identical twins who shared the same DNA inherited from their parents.

Both twins developed ALL in early childhood, at around four years of age.


Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia

  • ALL is the most common type of leukaemia in children
  • It is very rare in adults
  • Experts still do not know what causes most cases but believe genetic and environmental factors combine to set off a cascade of events leading to ALL
  • This latest work suggests one common genetic mutation, ETV6-RUNX1, may be the initiating first step

By comparing blood and bone marrow samples of the twins in later childhood, the researchers found one genetic mutation identical in both twins – a common leukaemia-causing gene called ETV6-RUNX1.

The researchers reason that this mutation must have arisen in one of the twins while in the womb.

Cells carrying the mutation then spread to the other twin via their shared placental blood circulation.

The identical twins had a total of 22 other mutations, but none of these mutations was shared by both twins, and so they must have accumulated after birth as the disease progressed, say the researchers.

Study co-author Prof Greaves said: “We were able to sequence the entire human genome. It told us for the first time that this is the key mutation that starts the whole process of leukaemia. The other mutations must have happened after birth.”

Dr Julie Sharp of Cancer Research UK said: “This interesting research shows how studying the DNA of twins can shed light on the genetic mistakes that first initiate cancer in children and the subsequent faults that occur as the cancer evolves.

“Studies like this could reveal new ways to target the very roots of cancer and help us better understand how the disease develops over time. Survival rates have increased significantly over the past decades thanks to research, but there is still more to do to make treatments better with fewer side-effects.”

BBC – http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-22062616#?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter

Measles: Swansea epidemic cases could exceed 600

11 month old baby boy held in his father's arms as they queue outside Morriston Hospital in Swansea
A baby boy waits in the queue for the MMR vaccination outside Morriston Hospital

Health officials are bracing themselves for the number of confirmed cases in the Swansea measles epidemic to rise.

On Friday the number of cases stood at 588 but officials say around 15-20 new cases are currently confirmed each day.

Parents across Swansea, Neath Port Talbot and Bridgend are being urged to vaccinate children before they return to school after the Easter break.

Meanwhile, a Swansea newspaper has defended itself against claims that its 1990s anti-MMR campaign was to blame.

Jonathan Roberts, editor of the South Wales Evening Post, said the campaign was hard-hitting but reflected parents’ concerns at the time about the safety of the vaccine.


It is clear that there were genuine concerns in the mid-90s about MMR and the Post gave them full and responsible coverage”

Jonathan RobertsSouth Wales Evening Post Editor

It is the first time the newspaper has responded to claims that its campaign could have been responsible for a lower uptake of the MMR (measles, mumps and rubella) vaccine in the Swansea area.

“It is clear that there were genuine concerns in the mid-90s about MMR and the Post gave them full and responsible coverage,” he said in the article on the Evening Post website.

He added that “with the benefit of hindsight” it is easy to be critical.

“To judge it honestly and fairly, one has to consider the fear which existed at the time, the fact that medical experts were publicly expressing concerns about the vaccine and the duty of this paper to reflect public opinion.”

Mr Roberts will host a live webchat at 14:30 BST on Tuesday on the paper’s website.

If the number of cases in the Swansea area reaches 622, it will exceed the figure in the north west of England in the year to February 2013, with most on Merseyside, in Greater Manchester and west Lancashire.

‘Not judging’

About 1,700 people were vaccinated at special hospital drop-in clinics at the weekend and health officials are urging others to get the jab.


Measles Q&A

  • How safe is it to take children to mainland Europe who have had two doses of the MMR vaccine?

It gives 99% protection against the measles virus.

  • What if they have had only one dose of MMR?

One dose is better than none, but two doses is better than one. If you are concerned about travelling to an outbreak area you can bring forward the second MMR dose. Speak to your GP about it.

  • What if my children are not vaccinated at all?

The advice is to go to your GP and arrange for them to be immunised as soon as possible before you travel. Measles is a dangerous viral illness that can be fatal.

BBC Health – Measles

‘Death risk’ in outbreak

Sara Hayes, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board’s director of public health, said: “Many children who missed the MMR jabs when they were little will be sitting exams once they go back to school.

“We are not in any way judgmental about why their children may have missed the MMR in the past. The important thing is that they get the jab now,” she added.

Before the introduction of the MMR in 1988, about half a million children caught measles and about 100 died from it each year in the UK.

Concerns over the jab’s safety were raised in the late 1990s when a surgeon published a since discredited paper in The Lancet suggesting MMR was linked to an increased risk of autism.

That paper, and subsequent media coverage, led to immunisation rates plummeting.

Although the epidemic is based in Swansea, cases continue to be reported across Wales.

Most are in the Abertawe Bro Morgannwg health region, which also includes Neath, Port Talbot and Bridgend.

There are also cases in Powys and in the Hywel Dda Health Board area, which covers Carmarthenshire, Ceredigion and Pembrokeshire.

Officials have said it is “just a matter of time” before a child is left with serious and permanent complications, such as eye disorders, deafness or brain damage, or even dies.

Typical symptoms of measles include fever, cough, conjunctivitis and a rash. Complications are quite common even in healthy people, and about 20% of reported measles cases experience one or more complication.

These can include ear infections, vomiting and diarrhoea, pneumonia, meningitis and serious eye disorders.

Queues at Morriston Hospital on Saturday
Queues at Morriston Hospital on Saturday

認識百病之母——攔截糖尿病

去年,世界衛生組織(WHO)發佈了幾項關於糖尿病正在成為一種全球性流行病的重要事實:全世界有3.46億多人患有糖尿病。糖尿病預計將在2030年成為全球第7大死亡原因。將有超過80%的糖尿病死亡發生在低收入和中等收入國家。2005至2030年期間,糖尿病死亡人數將增加一倍。糖尿病是造成失明,截肢和腎衰竭的主要原因。

60%同時患心血管疾病

不管是已知罹患或已患病卻不知情的患者,共同特性是他們都是社會生產主力,更是家庭經濟主要來源,一旦患病,不僅威脅到健康,更對家庭、國家造成負擔。

被診斷罹第二類型糖尿病時,超過60%的病人也同時被檢測出患有嚴重心血管疾病,所以即使你現在還沒有明顯糖尿病症狀,也應對糖尿病因與預防方法,有更多的瞭解。

4種原因少吃甜食仍血糖偏高

大多數人都知道過度進食各式升糖指數高的食品,日久會有糖尿病,但是如果已經少吃甜食、漢堡、糕點,仍然血糖偏高,從中醫角度來看,這種第二型糖尿病的病因約分為以下4種:

一、外感型

曾有位50多歲患者被檢查出血糖過高(飯前血糖約160mg、飯後血糖約180mg),服用一兩種降血糖藥後,不僅無效,且噁心、嘔吐、眩暈、食慾不佳、睡眠品質受影響及全身痠痛,不吃藥還沒事,吃了反而副作用多。

經四診合參(望、聞、問、切)後研判,患者血糖不正常應為假象,主因是身體過勞時又吃錯感冒藥,而感冒的病機被感冒藥壓制後,直接進入腹腔,影響到整個腹腔循環,其中一部份還影響到胰臟,導致胰島素分泌不足,引發血糖值攀升。患者服用適當的感冒中藥後,血糖變得穩定,且很快地恢復到正常值,不需再依賴降血糖藥。

這類型常見於年輕族群,因其在上耗心神、下吸腎精的過勞狀態下,又習慣晚睡或熬夜,遇到氣候變化而感冒時,往往服用較強效的感冒藥來解除症狀,一不小心就造成上述情況。這就是因外來感染而造成血糖不正常的病因類型,此時需要適當地解除外來的感染,建議找你所信任的中醫師,分辨你是因“風寒暑濕燥火"何種病因而導致的血糖過高,即可對症祛除。

若常有感冒情形,且每次感冒就會口渴、喉嚨痛,伴隨血糖升高,可將荊芥3錢、桔梗3錢、甘草2錢,熬煮成茶飲,對每次感冒就會血糖不穩定的人具有平常保健預防之效。

二、飲食不當型

一位30多歲的媽媽來看不孕症,第一胎之後四、五年來都無法再懷孕,問診發現主要是血糖不正常所造成,建議她去做檢驗。隔次回診時,患者告知檢驗發現血糖稍有偏高(約140mg左右),但患者自認吃得清淡、不偏好任何零食或糕點,為何會血糖偏高?

從脈象上觀察判斷問題在喝過多冷飲,不在糖而在冰。人喝過多冷飲後,腹腔附近的器官溫度會降低,且冷飲經12指腸、小腸吸收後,會造成附近淋巴液大量增加,甚至粘稠,局部溫度降低與淋巴液過多等情況綜合起來,極有可能造成胰臟附近的循環不好,導致胰臟分泌胰島素不足,造成假性糖尿病的出現。

建議患者戒喝冷飲,改喝些溫化腸胃附近的水飲的藥方就可以改善,如理中湯,用理中湯加厚朴、紫蘇、陳安、茯苓、草果,可讓腸胃附近淋巴循環變好、溫度回升後,胰臟功能自然恢復,血糖就會趨於正常。

三、過勞型

這類型常見於年輕族群或四、五十歲沒有家族史的糖尿病患者身上,這群人絕大部份處於上耗心神、下吸腎精狀態,壓力大又要硬撐,各種生活壓力讓其無法負擔卻又不得不承擔,就容易造成腎上腺素過度分泌,讓胰島素阻抗變得非常的大,血糖運用上就會出問題。

其次因為過勞而導致的血糖偏高,通常都會伴隨吃得少、睡得少、或睡不著卻體重愈來愈增加等代謝症候群的症狀出現。在中醫看來,因虛證而變成糖尿病的患者是最多的,典型情況就是整個脾胃虛或是脾腎兩虛,又加上由壓力造成的肝鬱、脾虛、腎虛,這類型的糖尿病患者往往給予補藥後就會有效。

四、壓力型

屬於長期處於壓力狀態下所造成的糖尿病,因壓力而造成的自律神經失調,尤其在腸胃道附近的失調,易造成胰臟附近循環不好,進而影響到胰臟分泌胰島素的功能。

這類型常見於年輕的糖尿病患者,不喝冷飲、也不亂吃點心或宵夜,但在體力透支又壓力大的情況下,很容易出現血糖不正常,同時伴隨胸悶、心悸、胃常脹氣、消化不良、睡眠品質不好,女性患者在月經前容易乳房脹痛,經期緊張症候群非常明顯等,有時還會伴隨出現輕微憂鬱、焦慮、躁鬱等情緒狀況。患者若同時血糖過高,在中醫調理上,首重於氣機疏理,常會給予四逆散加升降散,青皮、陳皮,或紫胡疏肝湯、逍遙散作為加減,讓腸胃道周圍自律神經恢復規律,胰臟即可順利地分泌胰島素。

綜合來說,糖尿病與所有慢性病形成原因一樣,除先天遺傳外,要形成真正的糖尿病,須有以下3個條件同時成立:過勞的身體(包含壓力過大等)、營養失衡或飲食不當、外來的感染,當這件俱足時,糖尿病便會發作,且容易一發不可收拾,更易引發其他併發症。

抗糖就要殲滅“4大殺手"

眾所周知,糖尿病並不可怕,可怕的是它的併發症。糖尿病的治療目的就是使病人有基本正常的代謝水平,防止或延緩糖尿病急、慢性併發症的發生與發展,讓他們有良好的體力及精神狀態,正常地生長、生活、工作。要達到這些目的,就必須抵抗與糖尿病患者的4個殺手:高血糖、高血壓、高血脂和高血粘。

降血糖:控制糖尿病,首先就是要控制好血糖。怎麼控制好血糖?不外乎是駕好糖尿病教育與心理治療、飲食治療、運動治療、藥物治療、糖尿病監測五套馬車,使血糖維持在基本正常的水平。

穩血壓:高血壓與糖尿病互相影響、互為因果。有人把高血壓比作“無形殺手",特別是糖尿病患者,往往有血糖高、血脂不正常、血粘也高,再加上高血壓,血管進一步收縮變窄,很容易發生阻塞或出血。阻塞的結果就是腦血栓、腦梗塞、心絞痛、心肌梗死、下肢潰爛……所以糖尿病患者必須十分注意、經常監測血壓的變化。

調血脂:糖尿病患者血脂容易不正常,主要表現在膽固醇和甘油三酯水平升高,低密度脂蛋白該低不低,高密度脂蛋白該高不高,結果造成高血壓、動脈粥樣硬化及心、腦血管病增多。經常參加鍛煉對減肥和調脂也十分重要。當飲食療法和運動療法還不能使血脂基本正常時,則應採用藥物治療。目前的調脂藥多需長期甚至終生服用。

防血粘:影響血液黏稠度的因素很多,包括血細胞因素(如紅細胞數量、大小和形態,血小板功能),血漿因素(如血漿蛋白質、血糖、血脂、纖溶活性)以及血管因素(如血管長度、口徑和血管內壁黏稠度)。這3方面出現障礙,血液黏稠度長期處於增高狀態時,可發生高粘滯血症(高血粘)。高血粘對糖尿病患者可引起血液瘀滯、供血不足、血管損傷、局部缺氧缺糖和酸中毒,最終加速糖尿病大血管、微血管及神經併發症的發生和發展,所以不得不防、不得不治。

防治高血粘的飲食,應清淡、低脂、低糖,多吃魚肉、瓜菜、黑木耳等。

1分鐘醫學教室

糖尿病是怎麼發生的?

糖尿病為內分泌失調疾病,主因是體內胰島素分泌缺乏、不足、或胰島素分泌作用不良,而引起醣類、蛋白質、脂肪等營養素代謝異常。

由於部份患者體內過多的糖會隨尿液排出,出現糖尿現象,故稱為糖尿病。世界衛生組織將糖尿病分成4種類型,第一類型是胰島素依賴型,第二類型是非胰島素依賴型,第3型是妊娠性糖尿病,第4型是續發性糖尿病。

胰島素屬身體內生的賀爾蒙,幫助食物中的糖分能夠順利進入身體細胞提供能量,讓血液中的血糖順利進入肝臟變成肝糖,或變成細胞內的脂肪儲存起來,才能使身體內血糖濃度維持一定水平。

壓力過大影響胰島素分泌

當身體壓力過大、過度工作,身體對自身所分泌的胰島素愈來愈不敏感時,稱為胰島素阻抗,須分泌更多胰島素來彌補。

為了應付血糖高居不了,身體會強制胰臟的β細胞分泌更多胰島素來控制血糖,周而復始,胰臟長期處於高分泌胰島素的狀態,身體器官代謝速度變慢,導致動脈血管快老化,動脈發炎、心臟病發作、中風、血壓升高、三酸甘油脂過高,血液中有血塊、動脈粥狀硬化情形更加易發,出現中央肥胖或腹部肥胖,這是胰島素阻抗變高時易出現的症狀。

由於糖尿病會引發如視網膜、周圍神經、腎臟與心臟血管病變等多種併發症,嚴重時會導致死亡,必須終身服藥控制。

根據美國統計資料顯示,有三分之一的腎臟病患因自身罹患糖尿病而引發。

印尼星洲日報/健康‧2013.04.02‧編輯:張芷瓊

http://life.sinchew.com.my/node/5129?tid=41

H7N9源於中韓禽鳥混血

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A Chinese health worker places a pigeon-trap at a park in Shanghai. Source: AFP via Getty Images

 

(中國‧北京9日訊)中國科學院實驗室研究人員近日發現,新型H7N9型禽流感病毒基因來自於韓國野鳥和上海、浙江、江蘇鴨群、雞群的基因重組。

中科院病原微生物與免疫學重點實驗室研究人員週一對財新網表示,H7N9禽流感病毒的8個基因片段中,H7片段來源於浙江鴨群中分離的禽流感病毒,而浙江鴨群中的病毒往上追溯,與韓國野鳥中分離的禽流感病毒同源;N9片段與韓國野鳥中分離的禽流感病毒同源。

研究結果還顯示,H7N9禽流感病毒暫未發現在豬群中的變異跡象。

截至週一,中國共有24人感染H7N9禽流感,其中7人死亡。

H7N9禽流感持續增長,中國副總理劉延東週一考察中國疾病預防控制中心時稱,國家主席習近平和總理李克強高度重視禽流疫情防控,要求切實做好病人救治和疫情防控工作。

在台灣,總統馬英九週二說,兩岸在2年前簽署醫藥合作協議,最近發生H7N9流感,希望透過合作,製造相關疫苗,遏止流感蔓延。

世界衛生組織(WHO)發言人週一向媒體表示,由於缺乏足夠資訊,討論H7N9禽流感病毒的致死率是否高於其他病毒,言之過早。他並稱,中國當局與世衛持續討論何時派遣專家往中國調查疫情。

另外,世衛高峰會亞洲論壇,週二在新加坡舉行,H7N9禽流感成為最新加入討論的補充議題,與會者將會討論疫情情況和如何加強世衛在這件事情上扮演的角色。

(星洲日報/國際)

http://news.sinchew.com.my/node/287929

台聯反對兩岸共同研發疫苗/衛署成立疫苗小組 美提供疫苗株

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〔自由時報記者邱宜君、陳永吉、陳璟民、施曉光、蘇永耀、林詩萍、林欣漢、王貝林/綜合報導〕衛生署副署長林奏延昨證實,衛生署已成立「H7N9疫苗工作小組」,最快五月底從美國取得疫苗株,台灣六到八週就能產出疫苗,再根據疫情的緊急程度調整人體試驗速度,最快三個月,最慢八個月,高危險族群就有安全的疫苗可用。

中市要火鍋店暫勿提供生雞蛋

為了配合防疫,各縣市昨日紛紛推出不同措施,台中市為降低H7N9禽流感傳染風險,將請火鍋店業者近期暫時不要提供生雞蛋給消費者,苗栗縣即日起實施中小學學生量體溫,包括高雄市、台南市、屏東縣、澎湖縣等農政單位今天將召開聯防會議,共同研議防範H7N9禽流感入侵,並加強濕地和候鳥監測採樣。

中國提供病毒株用在研發試劑

疾管局局長張峰義證實中國也已答應提供病毒株;林奏延則說,中國提供的病毒株會用在研發快篩試劑,可將檢驗時間從八小時縮短一半以上,但疫苗研發還是由美國提供的疫苗株來進行,比較節省時間。

林奏延指出,目前國內有生產流感疫苗經驗的廠商有兩家,基亞生技是與日本北里藥廠合作,有能力生產H1N1疫苗,至於國光生技則與台灣國家衛生研究院合作,有能力生產H1N1疫苗和H5N1疫苗。

衛生署副署長戴桂英則在立法院答詢時表示,目前正透過包括中國官方、世界衛生組織及美國疾病管制局,儘早取得病毒株。她說,台灣兩位防疫專家日前至中國除進行防疫工作溝通、了解病史,取得H7N9病毒株也是洽談內容之一,「沒有病毒株就沒有疫苗」。

但和信醫院副院長謝炎堯提醒,若以目前禽傳人的H7N9病毒去研發疫苗,等到病毒變化為人傳人,現階段研發的疫苗恐已不適用。

國內兩疫苗廠開始暖身

國光生技發言人高聖凱說,只要國內啟動Mock-up(模擬生產模式),國光就有能力在兩個月內生產至少五百萬劑以上的H7N9禽流感疫苗。基亞生技發言人歐朝銓也表示,目前公司H5N1禽流感疫苗已完成臨床一期試驗,只要政府許可,隨時可以跳過去做H7N9禽流感疫苗,他也證實衛生署近期的確來電討論,要基亞先準備生產疫苗事宜。

另外,台聯立委許忠信昨天質詢戴桂英,衛生署有沒有兩岸共同研發H7N9疫苗的構想?戴桂英答覆說,「目前沒有」,但她說,只要符合國人公共衛生需要的疫苗,衛生署都鼓勵開發,至於如何完成,要看合作機會與條件。

台聯黨團表達堅決反對兩岸共同研發H7N9疫苗的想法;台聯黨團說,中國仍有兩千顆導彈對著台灣,許多新病毒都被懷疑是中國生化實驗室生產出來的,兩岸合作開發疫苗,將使中國掌握台灣疫苗的基因排列及成分,進而發展台灣無疫苗抵禦的病毒生化武器。

負壓車整備抽測 消防署掉漆

另外,民進黨立委姚文智昨在立法院內政委員會質詢時,抽測呼吸性傳染病防疫所需「負壓隔離車」整備情形,消防署長葉吉堂除車輛數據、所在分隊答錯外,他答應在質詢結束後起算十分鐘內,台北市忠孝消防分隊的人車可到達立法院受檢,結果花了廿九分廿六秒,才有配屬永吉消防分隊的人車抵達立法院,逾時近二十分鐘;姚文智說:「署長落漆。」

奇摩新聞

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北京疾控中心发布H7N9预防指南

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4月7日,北京市疾病预防控制中心公布了预防人感染H7N9禽流感指南。该指南综合了国家卫生和计划生育委员会、世界卫生组织(WHO)针对H7N9禽流感的诊疗方案和疑难解答,对H7N9潜伏期、早期症状和预防建议等热点问题,作出详解。

中国青年报记者将指南内容编选如下:

1、什么是H7N9禽流感?

禽流感,是由甲型流感病毒的一种亚型引起的急性传染性疾病。它通常只感染鸟类,少见情况会感染人、猪、马、水貂和海洋哺乳动物。

可感染人的禽流感病毒亚型为H5N1、H9N2、H7N7、H7N2、H7N3。此次报道的人感染H7N9禽流感病毒,是H7N9和H9N2基因重配的新病毒。2013年以前,中国没有发现人感染H7禽流感病例。

2、人是怎样感染上H7N9禽流感的?

部分确诊病例曾经接触过动物或者处于有动物环境当中。

2013年4月4日,在上海市一家市场上的鸽子中检出H7N9流感病毒,与人感染H7N9禽流感有较高同源性。但人如何感染尚不明确。目前根据以往经验及本次病例流行病学调查推测,可能由携带H7N9禽流感病毒的禽类及其粪便、羽毛、呼吸道分泌物血液等,经呼吸道、接触等方式传播给人类。

3、人与人之间会传播H7N9禽流感吗?

根据既往资料,人禽流感均为散发。目前尚无确切证据显示此次的H7N9病毒可以通过人与人之间传播。因此目前在人群中传播力不强。

但是既往人感染高致病性禽流感的病死率十分高,约为60%。这次H7N9禽流感病毒,也有很高的病死率。截至2013年4月8日,确诊的人感染H7N9禽流感22例,其中7例死亡。

4、人感染H7N9禽流感的潜伏期有多长?

根据流感的潜伏期及现有H7N9禽流感病毒感染病例的调查结果,潜伏期一般为7天以内。

5、哪些人需要更加注意预防H7N9禽流感?

现阶段主要是从事禽类养殖、销售、宰杀、加工业者,以及在发病前1周内接触过禽类者,需要比普通人更加注意预防。

6、得了H7N9禽流感,早期有哪些症状?

人感染H7N9禽流感病例起病急,一般表现为流感样症状,如发热,咳嗽,少痰,可伴有头痛、肌肉酸痛和全身不适。重症患者病情发展迅速,表现为重症肺炎,体温大多持续在39℃以上,出现呼吸困难,可伴有咯血痰;可快速进展出现急性呼吸窘迫综合征等。

7、最近是不是不能吃家禽了?

禽流感病毒普遍对热敏感,65℃加热30分钟或煮沸(100℃)两分钟以上可灭活。因此,完全熟透的家禽/猪肉等是可以食用的。

但是禽流感对低温抵抗力较强,在4℃水中可存活1个月,因此五六分熟的鸡排,火锅需要谨慎食用。

8、普通人应该如何预防禽流感?

(1)注意个人卫生,保持勤洗手、室内勤通风换气、注意营养,保证充足的睡眠和休息,加强体育锻炼。尤其在接触禽畜后及时彻底洗手。

(2)尽可能减少与禽畜不必要的接触,特别注意尽量避免接触病死禽畜。食用禽肉蛋时要充分煮熟。

(3)生熟食物要分开处理,当手部有破损处理肉类时,建议戴手套;

(4)出现打喷嚏、咳嗽等呼吸道感染症状时,要用纸巾、手帕掩盖口鼻,预防感染他人;出现发热、咳嗽、咽痛、全身不适等症状时,应戴上口罩。

(5)如果病情加重应佩戴口罩及时到医院发热门诊就医,并告之医生近7天有无禽类接触,以及去过禽流感疫区。

(6)外出踏青时,应尽量避免接触野生禽鸟或进入野禽栖息地。

(7)年老体弱者、特别是患有基础病的居民,在呼吸道传染病高发时期,应尽量减少去空气不流通和人群拥挤的场所。到医院就诊时应戴口罩。

9、有无针对性药物、治疗方案或者疫苗?

依据国家卫生和计划生育委员会下发的方案,早期可以应用奥司他韦或扎那米韦进行抗病毒治疗。对于人感染H7N9禽流感,主要是对症治疗以及抗病毒治疗,目前尚未研制出疫苗。

10、如果出现高热咳嗽的症状怎么办?

若出现发热、头痛、鼻塞、咳嗽、全身不适等呼吸道症状时,应戴上口罩,尽快到医院发热门诊就诊,并务必告诉医生自己发病前7天是否到过禽流感疫区,是否与病禽接触等情况,并在医生指导下治疗和使用药物。

凤凰网

http://news.ifeng.com/mainland/special/h7n9/content-3/detail_2013_04/09/23993445_0.shtml

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