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Archive for January, 2013

Crispy Baked Chicken Wings

Crispy Baked Chicken Wings

Ingredients

Buffalo Sauce

  • 1 tablespoon unsalted butter, melted
  • 1/4 teaspoon cayenne pepper
  • 1/4 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper
  • 1/4 teaspoon kosher salt
  • 1/4 cup hot pepper sauce (such as Frank’s)

Ginger-Soy Glaze

  • 1/4 cup honey
  • 2 tablespoons soy sauce
  • 3 large garlic cloves, crushed
  • 1 2×1″ piece of ginger, peeled, sliced

Wings

  • 5 pounds chicken wings, tips removed, drumettes and flats separated
  • 2 tablespoons vegetable oil
  • 1 tablespoon kosher salt
  • 1/2 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper

Preparation

Buffalo Sauce

  • Mix first 4 ingredients in a medium bowl; let stand for 5 minutes. Whisk in hot sauce; keep warm. DO AHEADCan be made 1 week ahead. Let cool completely; cover and chill. Rewarm before using.

Ginger-Soy Glaze

  • Bring all ingredients and 1/4 cup water to a boil in a small saucepan, stirring to dissolve honey. Reduce heat to low; simmer, stirring occasionally, until reduced to 1/4 cup, 7–8 minutes. Strain into a medium bowl. Let sit for 15 minutes to thicken slightly. DO AHEADCan be made 5 days ahead. Cover; chill. Rewarm before using.

Wings

  • Preheat oven to 400°. Set a wire rack inside each of 2 large rimmed baking sheets. Place all ingredients in a large bowl; toss to coat. Divide wings between prepared racks and spread out in a single layer.
  • Bake wings until cooked through and skin is crispy, 45–50 minutes.
  • Line another rimmed baking sheet with foil; top with a wire rack. Add half of wings to ginger-soy glaze and toss to evenly coat. Place wings in a single layer on prepared rack and bake until glaze is glossy and lightly caramelized, 8–10 minutes.
  • Toss remaining half of wings in Buffalo sauce. Serve immediately (no need to bake).

Read More http://www.bonappetit.com/recipes/2012/02/crispy-baked-chicken-wings#ixzz2JZFGtjos

Netbot, The Tweetbot for App.net Goes Free

Posted by  on January 31st, 2013
iPhone App – Designed for iPhone, compatible with iPad

Netbot and Netbot for iPad have gone free. While App.net has failed to take over the world, yet, if you are interested in this alternative to Twitter, you’ll be hard pressed to find a better client to use with it.

Read more: http://www.148apps.com/news/netbot-tweetbot-appnet-free/#ixzz2JZERAWIw

Lewisham Hospital: A&E cut over neighbouring trust debt

Protesters marching past Lewisham hospital
At least 15,000 people marched in protest against proposals on Saturday

The A&E department at Lewisham hospital in south-east London is to be downgraded and made smaller as part of cost-cutting measures.

Health Secretary Jeremy Hunt also said the maternity unit at Lewisham would be replaced with a midwife-led facility.

The cuts aim to help tackle debts of £150m at the neighbouring South London Healthcare NHS Trust (SLHT).

At least 15,000 people took part in a protest march against the plans on Saturday.

Mr Hunt told MPs: “I respect and recognise the sense of unfairness people feel because their hospital has been caught up in the financial problems of its neighbour.

“However solving the financial crisis next door is also in the interest of the people of Lewisham because they too depend on the services which are currently part of South London Healthcare Trust.”

Mr Hunt accepted six of the seven proposals put forward by special administrator Matthew Kershaw.


What is happening now in south London could define if and how the debate on the future of healthcare happens.”

Nick TriggleHealth Correspondent, BBC News

He said £36m would be allocated to expanding capacity at the hospitals which would take on high-risk births from Lewisham.

‘Dangerous precedents’

He said the SLHT, which is in administration, was the “most financially challenged in the country”, as it spends £60m a year, or 16% of its annual income, to service two PFI contracts signed in 1998.

Mr Hunt confirmed that the SLHT will be dissolved by October 2013 and its hospitals re-configured.

He decided to amend the seventh proposal which had called for the A&E to become an “urgent care centre”.

Instead up to three quarters of those currently attending Lewisham A&E could attend a new, smaller service at the hospital, he said.

Patients with more serious conditions could be taken to other hospitals.

He said overall the proposals could save up to 100 lives per year through higher clinical standards.

He said it was on the advice of NHS Medical Director Professor Bruce Keogh that the decision was taken to retain Lewisham Hospital’s A&E in the best interests of patients.

Jeremy Hunt gives a statement on South London Healthcare NHS Trust
Jeremy Hunt said the A&E would stay open, but be made smaller

 

Andy Burnham, shadow health secretary, said the move would “set dangerous precedents”.

Joan Ruddock, Labour MP for Lewisham Deptford, said: “Today’s proposals are a sham and a shambles and unacceptable to those who represent people in Lewisham.”

Mr Hunt responded: “A sham and a shambles is what I inherited, not what I’m bequeathing.”

The changes are part of a radical overhaul proposed in response to SLHT losing around £1.3m a week.

Jos Bell, a Save Lewisham Hospital campaigner, called the announcement “a complete travesty”.

She rejected Mr Hunt’s estimate that journey times to other A&Es in the area would only take one minute longer.

Ms Bell, who collapsed with heart and respiratory failure in 2006, added: “I’m only alive because Lewisham is where it is.”

BBC

Census 2011: South Wales Valleys rank bottom for health

Obese child
Obesity costs NHS Wales an estimated £73m a year

Five of the 10 areas where people feel the least healthy in the whole of England and Wales are in the south Wales valleys, the 2011 census shows.

People were asked to report their health, with Cardiff emerging as the healthiest place with 81.4% happy.

The Welsh capital was one of only three local authority areas in Wales to show an improvement over the last 10 years.

Of Wales’ 22 councils, Blaenau Gwent had the lowest proportion of people who thought their health was good at 72.6%.

Merthyr Tydfil was second from bottom at 73%. Neath Port Talbot, Rhondda Cynon Taff and Caerphilly were also in the list of the least healthy in England and Wales.

By comparison, 81.4% of people in Cardiff said they were in good health and it is thought a younger population partly explains the city’s apparent healthy status.

The 2011 census also revealed health had improved in only three local authority areas in 10 years. It improved by a margin of less than one per cent in Cardiff, Swansea and Wrexham.

‘Deprivation’

Professor Dave Adamson, an expert on regeneration at Glamorgan University who has advised the Welsh government, said poor health was commonly found in deprived areas.

He said: “In the broadest sense it’s linked to deprivation and all the cultural things such as diet and they don’t expect to be well – they take poor health for granted.

“It’s a feature of deprived communities globally you might say, but certainly the evidence is there across the UK.”

He said health problems associated with poor diets, such as obesity and diabetes, were growing.

Last week UK minister Anna Soubry said children from poor backgrounds were more likely to be overweight.

Prof Adamson added: “There is an element of truth in it. The obesity figures do coincide quite significantly with poverty figures but it’s not an exclusive relationship.

“It’s because of the high dependency on high starch, high calorific cheap foods.”

The census found more than 360,000 people in Wales were limited in their daily activities because of a health problem or disability.

The council wards with the highest proportion of people who were limited “a lot” were Cymmer, Gwynfi and Sandfields West in Neath Port Talbot, and Maerdy in Rhondda Cynon Taf – all at 22% of the population.

By contrast, in the Menai ward in Bangor, Gwynedd, just 2% of the population said they were limited.

BBC

IVF delays due to NHS-only policy, fertility expert claims

Peter Bowen-Simpkins said the decision to end the contract with his Swansea clinic was purely ideological

A fertility expert claims women seeking IVF treatment are suffering delays because the Welsh government stopped funding for a private clinic.

Peter Bowen-Simpkins said the decision to end the contract with his Swansea clinic was purely ideological.

Patients are waiting 18 months for the NHS service at Cardiff’s University Hospital of Wales, known as IVF Wales.

But the Welsh government says it is supporting work to build more capacity for IVF services.

A new NHS IVF unit is due to open in Port Talbot in the spring, however it will be 18 months later than planned.


It feels to me like a totalitarian state who say this is what we are going to do despite the outcome”

Peter Bowen-SimpkinsLondon Women’s Clinic

In the meantime, some patients have been offered earlier treatment at NHS units in Bristol, which has cost the Welsh NHS more than £500,000.

A decision to end the use of private providers in the NHS came from the previous Labour-Plaid coalition government.

As a result, the Welsh Health Specialised Services Committee (WHSSC) – the NHS body that plans specialist treatments – did not renew a contract with London Women’s Clinic (LWC) in Swansea.

Two years after the contract with LWC came to an end, a new NHS IVF unit at Neath Port Talbot hospital is due to open in April, but it is 18 months later than planned.

‘Crazy’

LWC medical director Peter Bowen-Simpkins said the “crazy” decision to end the contract with the company’s Swansea clinic was purely ideological.


Analysis

Aled ap DafyddBBC Wales political reporter

We need to turn the clock back to get a proper timeline on this.

Up until March 2011 women, mainly in west Wales, were receiving private treatment on the NHS at the London Women’s Clinic (LWC) in Swansea. The previous Welsh government decided to end all private involvement in the NHS and as a consequence LWC’s funding came to an end.

Over £1m was invested in a new IVF facility at Neath Port Talbot Hospital to take its place. It was supposed to open in autumn 2011 so there would only have been a six month gap between the private contract coming to an end and the new NHS service being up an running.

But it’s still not open.

The clinic’s medical director, Peter Bowen-Simpkins, says the decision to discontinue funding before the new NHS service was open is based purely on ideology.

IVF Wales treating patients from Cardiff and the Vale they are now having to treat women from Abertawe Bro Morgannwg.

This has cost the NHS over £500,000.

He said: “It’s appalling that the assembly can disadvantage the very people it’s supposed to be supporting.

“As a consequence of what has happened we’ve gained because people have been forced into the private sector because of the NHS.

“I feel very strongly that the Welsh assembly made a decision that has actually produced a waiting list which is about two years whereas before it was about six weeks.

“It’s costing them a lot more and the results are likely to be worse because patients are getting older.”

Mr Bowen-Simpkins went on: “It feels to me like a totalitarian state who say ‘this is what we are going to do despite the outcome’.

“The very people who probably have supported the government are the ones who are going to be disadvantaged, the ones who can’t afford it (private treatment) and are going to have to travel a very long way.”

Figures up to November 2012 show 210 women from south and west Wales have been treated by North Bristol NHS trust and a further 90 were waiting for treatment. This has cost the Welsh NHS more than £500,000.

LWC claims it was saving taxpayers’ money as the amount it received was less than was given to IVF Wales for comparable treatment.

WHSSC said the decision was not based on money and that it is working with Abertawe Bro Morgannwg Health Board to make sure the facility at Neath Port Talbot will open in the spring.

A Welsh government spokesperson said: “Whilst we understand the London Women’s Clinic motive, as a private company who wish to generate a profit, the Welsh government is clear in its support of the work being done to build more capacity for IVF services in NHS Wales.”

The Welsh government expects the Neath Port Talbot facility to be ready to treat patients from April, subject to accreditation from the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority.

BBC

Many hospitals not sharing crime data, audit shows

Man in a hoodie holding a knife

Similar schemes have seen a fall in incidents of violent crime

A coalition pledge to make hospitals share violent crime data with police is being carried out in only a third of areas in England, an audit shows.

The government has written to hospitals and chief constables for an explanation after the Department of Health audit.

Accident and emergency departments are meant to share information about where knife or gun attacks are happening with the police and local council.

This was part of the government’s programme for government in 2010.

‘Disappointed’

In 2010 the coalition promised in its programme for government to make hospitals share non-confidential information with the police so crime hotspots could be identified.


I would want to say to hospitals and local authorities this is straightforward, ethical information-sharing that makes for safer communities – just get on with it”

Prof Jonathan ShepherdCardiff University

In the government’s mid term report, which measured progress against their programme for government they said “we have established a national scheme requiring hospitals to share information on gun and knife crime”.

But an audit carried out for the Department of Health has revealed that is happening effectively in only a third of community safety partnership areas, and not at all in one-fifth.

The charity Victim Support said it was very disappointing that the plan was not being implemented.

Susannah Hancock, its assistant chief executive, said: “The NHS is the second most likely public service after the police to come into contact with victims of violent crime, many of whom will not have reported such incidents to the police at all. ”

It is thought that police are aware of fewer than a third of assaults that lead to the victim being treated in hospital.

Pioneering research carried out in Cardiff tested the idea of regularly sharing collated information about the type and location of attacks, with all confidential patient information removed.

As a result, the city saw a 35% fall in the numbers of assault victims turning up at A&E for treatment between 2000 and 2005.

Professor Jonathan Shepherd, from Cardiff University, said the research showed sharing information costs little, and saves money in the longer term for the NHS and the criminal justice system. He said the findings of the audit were surprising, giving the strong evidence, and the commitment from government.

“I feel disappointed that it hasn’t been taken up faster than this, and I would want to say to hospitals and local authorities this is straightforward, ethical information-sharing that makes for safer communities – just get on with it.”

‘Win-win’

Arrowe Park hospital, in the Wirral, has seen some impressive results from setting up systems to share information every month with the police and local council. Anyone arriving at A&E with an injury caused by a violent assault is taken through a standard set of questions about the location and circumstances of the attack.

The information has all patient data removed from it before it is shared. Between 2004 and 2010, the number of alcohol-related assault victims arriving for treatment fell by 30%.

Chris Oliver, from the Wirral University Hospital Trust, said the results had convinced busy staff in A&E to get involved: “It’s owned by everyone within the department. The reception staff are very proactive when going through the questions. It’s very rewarding for our staff to see the reduction in people coming into the department. It’s a win-win.”

The Department of Health said Health Minister Anna Soubry had written this week to all hospital chief executives and chief constables in England to remind them of the government’s commitment on sharing information.

The letter says there are no legal reasons for not sharing anonymous information, and asks for any “good reasons why it cannot be done” in areas which have failed to put systems in place.

Despite this slow progress in implementing the approach in England, the idea has attracted international interest and there are pilot schemes under way in other countries.

BBC

健康防护:美食当前肾也没负担

最近回台看到一则新闻,一个12岁女童四年多来几乎天天吃鸡排配碳酸饮料,吃到肾脏衰竭需终生洗肾,让人感叹,这些都是我经常在课堂上呼吁大家的医学常识啊!但还是有许多人不了解其重要性,真让人不胜唏嘘!

鸡排是高盐、高油及高蛋白食物,如果长期大量食用,体内会产生过量含氮废物,加上碳酸饮料的助力,都会加重肾脏负担。农历春节即将到来,免不了又是一番吃吃喝喝,面对各式各样的美食,我们究竟该注意哪些事项呢?

1.适量摄取蛋白质(重质不重量)

低蛋白饮食:减少尿素氮生成、减少肾脏负担。然而蛋白质限制太严格会导致营养不良,建议每日2至4两肉类,三分二动物性蛋白质。某些植物蛋白质代谢后易产生较多氮废物(尿毒),宜少吃(如绿豆、红豆、黄豆、豆类制品、瓜子、花生、腰果、杏仁果等)。

2.限制盐分

钠易让水分积存体内,造成水肿、高血压并加重肾脏负担。含钠高的食物:腌渍、罐头等加工食品(如味素、乌醋、豆酱、豆鼓、蕃茄酱、沙茶酱、味噌等)。

含钠量高的蔬菜(如紫菜、海带、胡萝卜、芹菜、蚕豆),不宜大量食用。

3.限制钾的量

排钾量90%由肾脏负责。含钾高的食物:如紫菜、发菜、苋菜、菠菜、香菇、草菇、甘薯、马铃薯、芋头、龙眼干、葡萄干、香蕉、奇异果、香瓜、木瓜、草莓、杨桃、咖啡、红茶、绿茶、咖哩粉等。

4.限制磷,适时补充钙质

肾功能下降时会导致磷排出困难,造成血磷堆积,刺激副甲状腺素制造分泌,加速骨质破坏,造成钙流失。

故肾功能不佳者常会出现低钙、高磷和骨质疏松的合并症。食物都含有磷,患者可借助钙片和食物一起吃,在肠胃道直接与磷结合,阻挡磷的吸收;故肾功能退化时,须限制含磷食物,适时补充钙。

含磷高食物:咖啡、可可粉、绿茶、乌龙茶、红茶、啤酒、可乐、巧克力、花生糖等。

5.限制水分,依状况而定

需要控制水分的情况为:一天尿量不到400ml;水肿情况严重;体内囤积胸水及腹水;接受透析疗法。

6.摄取充足的热量

热量不足,身体将会代谢蛋白质转化为热量,产生废物加重肾脏负担。热量高蛋白质含量低的食物,如黄豆油、玉米油、橄榄油、花生油、菜籽油;藕粉、冬粉;冰糖、蜂蜜、水果糖、姜糖等。

因日常生活作息及饮食习惯改变,肾功能异常病患逐年增加,建议应多注意身体是否水肿、尿量减少等异常状况,若有家族病史或过敏体质者,更须小心防范肾脏病。

本报特约: 李延平医生

南洋商报

北市第一台 行動乳房X光攝影車上路

車上的乳房X光攝影機,通過美國食品藥物管理局認證的全數位乳房攝影儀器。(圖片提供/北市衛生局)

車上的乳房X光攝影機,是通過美國食品藥物管理局認證的全數位乳房攝影儀器。(圖片提供/北市衛生局)華人健康網

乳癌是全國及台北市女性癌症發生率的首位,早期發現治癒率高。不過以台北市為例,篩檢率不到三成。

為鼓勵婦女定期接受乳房篩檢,台北市立聯合醫院和平婦幼院區,打造北市第一輛造價上千萬元的「行動乳房X光攝影車」,希望透過超高階影像解析,增加發現一公分以下腫塊的機率。

【聯合報】

全文網址: 北市第一台 行動乳房X光攝影車上路 | 生活 | 即時新聞 | 聯合新聞網 http://udn.com/NEWS/BREAKINGNEWS/BREAKINGNEWS9/7675645.shtml#ixzz2JZB4GO8y
Power By udn.com

美美迎新春系列之美齿篇:健康牙齿 出美丽笑容

蔡雪棻医生表示,欲拥有健康漂亮的牙齿,单靠美容牙科还不够,日常口腔清洁才是基本条件。

 

牙齿即是人类消化系统的第一站,也是人的门面;缺了一颗牙,不利咀嚼,也极不美观。要拥有迷人笑容,口腔护理绝不可少。

现代牙医学固然有各种方法如矫正牙齿、美白牙齿,实现人人拥有迷人笑容的梦想。

但终究,32颗无价之宝的健康才是拥有迷人笑容的基本条件。

临床牙科专家蔡雪棻医生说,日常口腔清洁工作不足是形成蛀牙的主要原因。

其他原因还包括先天性牙齿脆弱,如在母体内摄取四环素(Tetracycline,一种抗生素,造成牙齿泛灰或泛黑色,现已禁用于六岁以下儿童及妇女)、在母体内吸收钙质不足(牙齿不坚固,易长蛀牙)。

即使先天不足,日后做好日常清理工作,便可远离蛀牙。胎儿吸取钙质不足,可在六岁以下赶紧补充,摄取牛奶、乳酪等乳制品、江鱼仔。

先天性牙齿脆弱比较容易受到细菌攻击而造成蛀牙;反观先天性牙齿坚固者,不易受细菌攻击,但不表示不会长蛀牙,只是牙齿蛀烂的时间要比他人长,若不照顾口腔清洁,日子久了一样长蛀牙。

口腔不卫生引发牙周病

蔡雪棻强调,口腔卫生不合格也可引发棘手的牙周病。牙周病是普遍的口腔健康问题,同时也是最容易被忽略的口腔健康问题!

牙周病可从幼儿时期开始形成,细菌在漫长岁月中不断积累,随着时间流逝而变本加厉。许多人以为照顾口腔卫生等于牙齿健康,对牙龈红肿、流血症状不以为意。

“经常有患者告诉我他天生牙龈容易流血或是全家人的牙龈都容易流血,这不是遗传,是牙周病的初症啊!”

她说,刷牙太用力导致的牙龈流血一般有疼痛感;牙龈不痛而流血、早晨起床吐出血来,八九离不开牙周病。

牙周病是由于口腔黏膜、牙垢没有清理干净而造成细菌在口腔内感染。牙周病基本可分为齿龈炎(gingivitis)和牙周炎(periodontitis)。

齿龈炎的症状发生在牙龈如红肿、流血,若没有即刻寻求治疗,将可演变成严重的牙周炎。牙周炎患者一般有牙齿疏松、牙齿长(zhǎng)长(cháng)症状,这是因为牙床内的牙槽骨已被细菌攻击,出现牙槽骨流失。严重患者的牙龈也有生脓症状。

牙龈不健康牙齿松脱

蔡雪棻说,牙齿好坏的根本建立在牙龈之上,皮之不存,毛将焉附,即使一个人拥有健康牙齿,牙龈不健康终究牙齿会松脱、疼痛,最终只能跟健康牙齿说“拜拜”。

“牙周病是慢性疾病,不似蛀牙会引发剧烈疼痛,若发现牙龈流血就得立刻治疗,牙齿松开才后知后觉,即使能治愈流血问题、清除细菌,也救不回流失的牙槽骨了。”

治疗齿龈炎和牙周炎皆可通过洗牙,彻底清除牙垢、牙石,将细菌赶尽杀绝得到彻底治疗。但牙周炎造成牙槽骨流失,牙齿严重疏松,可做人造牙槽骨移植,引导组织再生术(Guided Tissue Replacement,简称GTR)或硬组织置换(Hard tissueReplacement,简称HTR)恢复原本的模样。

牙痛死了,怎么办?

牙痛让人生不如死,拔掉算了!

“不可轻举妄动!”蔡雪棻说道。她表示,每颗牙都是无价之宝,能留便得留,除非没办法才将蛀牙拔去,如同时又蛀牙和牙周病。拔牙永远是最后选择。

■拔牙以外的选择:

“若患者的牙龈非常健康,蛀牙还是可以救的,若补牙也无补于事,可做根管治疗(rootcanal therapy)。”

根管治疗即是俗称的“抽牙根”,其实是通过祛除牙齿内的感染物和坏死骨髓,再填充根管,封闭冠部,由此防止蛀牙病变。

蔡雪棻说,根管治疗后牙齿已失去神经感觉,不再造成疼痛;正因此,一段日子后,该牙可转黑,变得脆弱,所以牙医一般会建议患者同时做牙冠(crown)。

牙冠也称“牙套”,即是当蛀牙已不适合补,用其包裹牙质。其材质选择多,如金属牙冠(金牙)、烤瓷冠。

若情况发生用于咀嚼的大臼齿,牙冠保护牙齿,让其坚固以继续履行职责;若发生在门牙,牙冠巩固牙齿之余,也有美观作用。

陶瓷管也被广泛用于美化牙齿,如牙齿排列不齐、牙色泛黄,以取代其他耗时的治疗如矫正牙箍,属美容牙科的范畴。

■拔牙后的选择:

若情况不允许将蛀牙留下,牙齿拔掉后留下的空缺,得补回去才行,不然,可导致其他牙齿疏松。

“除非拔掉的是智慧牙,否则拔任何一颗牙都可导致牙齿位置内出现微妙的变化,时间长了,空缺旁的牙齿可向前或向旁移动。”

蔡雪棻解释道,固定牙齿位置需要三点接触,即是上排牙齿要触及下排牙齿,牙齿两边也要触及旁边牙齿。一旦失去三点接触,牙齿便有机会移动。

填补拔牙后空缺的方法有几个,从前移动性假牙是首选,现在选择更多如牙桥(bridge)和种植牙(implant)。

牙桥是由(至少)三个人造牙组成,旁边两个类似牙冠,中间为填补空缺的实心假牙。空缺旁两颗牙齿被磨小,然后套上牙桥,以支持牙桥。

种植牙则是通过牙科手术将钛属人造牙根植入牙槽骨作为基础,支持上部人造牙齿。其功能就像天然牙齿,也相当美观,现已非常普遍。

牙齿美白

牙科诊所提供牙齿美白的方案有两种,一种是在家自行用的家庭牙齿美白组;另一种是在牙科诊所进行的美白程序。

蔡雪棻说,家庭牙齿美白组的长期效果比后者来得好,色泽更持久。唯问题是家庭牙齿美白组耗时至少两个星期,每天戴上涂有美白药物的牙套,使用者不可进食有色素食物如咖啡、茶、橙汁等,造成诸多不便。

牙科诊所进行的程序只要花几个小时在诊所内,张开口让牙医为你服务,程序完成后也不必忌口。

美白牙齿非仙丹,其目的是改善色调,并非一次疗程变让黄牙变明珠。一个人可做好几次牙齿美白,但若牙齿色泽已无法再白,便不可再做,再做只可伤害珐琅质,让牙质变薄。

她说,牙齿色泽就像皮肤,每个人天生牙色不一,有些人较黄、有些人较白,牙色与牙齿坚固与否没有直接关系。

老化使牙齿变黄

“牙齿美白适合给天生牙齿色泽不好的人,若是咖啡、茶等造成的外在污迹其实可通过牙科洗牙清洗干净。”

牙齿泛黄的原因有许多,除了先天性牙齿色泽,老化也是牙齿变黄的原因;另外还有四环素造成的牙齿泛灰黑色。

她叮咛道:“千万别自行购买药物为牙齿美白加工,用错产品可弄巧反拙!”

牙齿好坏:三分天定,七分人为

蔡雪棻表示,欲拥有健康漂亮的牙齿,单靠美容牙科还不够,还需日常照顾好口腔清洁,不然做再多功夫也只是徒劳。

保持口腔卫生干净的不变守则是做好基础清洁工作。口腔基础清洁工作可分为机械清理(牙刷和牙线)和化学清理(漱口水)。

她认为,若每日做好机械清理,无需化学清理,也能保持口腔卫生健康。虽是老生常谈,但还有很多人没有使用牙线的习惯,许多人甚至以为漱口水可代替牙线,其实漱口水只是辅助。

“尤其每晚临睡前口腔清理最重要,一定要用牙线彻底清理牙缝,千万不可偷懒!”

每餐饭后记得漱口,若情况允许也可使用牙线清理牙缝的食物残渣。但不建议饭后马上刷牙,餐后待半小时再刷牙较妥当。因为饭后口腔内酸性高,若此时刷牙,可软化牙齿,对牙齿造成伤害。

照顾牙齿从小开始,蔡雪棻说,打从长出第一颗牙齿就得刷牙。“别以为乳牙不必照顾,其实乳牙蛀了的疼痛感不亚于恒牙蛀坏,若乳牙太早脱落,可影响日后恒牙生长位置。”

牙线:

牙垢容易堆积在牙缝间,牙线能将每个小缝隙间的牙垢都剔出来,免除后患。无论牙齿缝隙大小,都必须使用牙线,市面上多种选择,可根据牙缝大小和各自习惯选择适合自己的牙线。

牙膏:

牙膏含有氟化物,具有保护牙齿珐琅质作用,清洁工作主要依赖牙刷。根据自己需求可选择适合自己的牙膏如敏感性牙膏,否则凡含有氟化物的牙膏都合适。

蔡雪棻提醒父母,六岁及以下幼儿应选择无氟化物的牙膏。因为幼儿经常在刷牙时不小心吞食牙膏,若长期食进氟化物,可造成日后恒牙出现氟斑牙(牙齿上有白斑)。

牙刷:

市面上贩卖的牙刷从基本款到可移动刷头甚至电动牙刷。蔡雪棻认为,特别功能牙刷固然好,但选择牙刷最主谨遵两点足矣———软毛和短刷头的牙刷。软毛刷不伤害牙齿和牙龈,短刷头能轻松伸入后方清洗大臼齿和智慧牙。

漱口水:

让牙垢不易黏在牙齿上,也具杀菌功效。

蔡雪棻说,温盐水是最好天然的漱口水,具有杀菌功效,牙龈红肿时也可使用温盐水漱口舒缓症状。

报道: 周季鋺 摄影: 苏汉成

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孟加拉果蝠带抗体 专家吁防爆发 伊波拉病毒惊现亚洲

(华盛顿30日综合电)曾在非洲爆发的伊波拉(Ebola)病毒惊现亚洲,科学家首次在孟加拉栖息的果蝠中,发现可能带有高致命扎伊尔伊波拉病毒的证据,显示病毒分布范围可能远较以往所知广阔,有出现爆发的可能性,建议加强防范。

研究于本月美国《新兴传染疾病》期刊发表,针对疑与孟加拉爆发致命立百病毒(Nipah)有关的果蝠。

致命率达九成

专家于孟加拉4地区,利用蝙蝠喜爱栖息洞穴的特性,在废弃房屋外装上雾网,诱捕276只蝙蝠,并抽取其血液、唾液、尿液及粪便样本测试。

其中5只棕果蝠(学名Rousettusleschenaultia)的样本测试中,对致命率达90%的扎伊尔伊波拉病毒(Zaire Ebola)抗体呈阳性反应,说明这些果蝠可能带有病毒,不过由于样本中未有发现任何病毒,专家未能作基因排序,比对该病毒与在非洲爆发的伊波拉病毒的吻合程度。

带领研究的奥利瓦尔指出,虽然非洲、印度与中国一带均有品种相近的果蝠,但它们的栖息地域并无重叠,亦不会远距离迁徙,因此果蝠身上带有的病毒,可能并非从非洲传播而来,而是一直存在于当地果蝠中。

此前菲律宾及西班牙亦曾发现伊波拉病毒的部分类型,但这次疑似发现的病毒,与扎伊尔伊波拉病毒最接近。

人畜共通病毒

他表示,伊波拉病毒存在并不一定代表会出现爆发,但亦不能排除,建议农民收集棕榈树汁时将容器盖好,以防带有病毒的果蝠采食,令树汁受污染。

伊波拉病毒为人畜共通病毒,未有疫苗预防,可导致出血热、器官衰竭甚至死亡。

人类最初是因为进食猩猩尸体后受感染而爆发伊波拉病毒,令猩猩一度被认为是病毒源头,及后研究认为蝙蝠是病毒的原宿主,人类及猩猩可能因接触带病蝙蝠唾液或粪便所污染的物件而受感染。

伊波拉病毒

●伊波拉(Ebola)是一个用来称呼一群属于纤维病毒科伊波拉病毒属下数种病毒的通用术语,可导致伊波拉病毒出血热,罹患此病可致人于死,包含数种不同程度的症状,包括恶心、呕吐、腹泻、肤色改变、全身酸痛、体内出血、体外出血、发烧等,症状与同为纤维病毒科的马尔堡病毒极为相似。

●具有50%至90%的致死率,致死原因主要为中风、心肌梗塞、低血容量休克或多发性器官衰竭。

●此病毒以非洲刚果民主共和国(刚果(金))的伊波拉河命名(该国旧称扎伊尔),此地接近首次爆发疫情的部落,刚果(金)仍是最近4次疫情爆发的所在地,包括2005年5月的一次大流行。

●伊波拉是人畜共通病毒,尽管世界卫生组织苦心研究,至今仍没有辨认出任何有能力在疫情爆发时存活的动物宿主,目前认为果蝠是病毒可能的原宿主。

●因为伊波拉的致命力,加上目前尚未有任何疫苗被证实有效,伊波拉被列为生物安全第四级病毒,也同时被视为是生物恐怖主义的工具之一。

品种

扎伊尔伊波拉病毒

●致死率高达90%。

●1976年8月26日首次于扎伊尔北边城镇爆发,首名个案纪录为44岁教师洛克拉,当时他的高烧被诊断为疑似疟疾感染,并且接受奎宁注射治疗。患者每日回医院就诊观察,1周后却恶化为无法控制的呕吐,带血腹泻、头痛、晕眩伴随呼吸困难,并开始自口、鼻、直肠等多处开始出血,于9月18日过世,病程仅约2周。

苏丹伊波拉病毒

●平均死亡率为53.76%。最近的爆发发生在2004年5月。

●苏丹伊波拉病毒在1976年首次在苏丹棉花厂工人身上被发现。研究人员指出,这名工人应该是在工厂中或附近接触到到带原生物宿主,但在检测过工厂附近的动物及昆虫后仍一无所获,带原宿主至今仍是未知。

雷斯顿伊波拉病毒

●对猴子有很高的致死率,但对人类并没有致命性。

●1989年11月首次在一群由菲律宾进口至美国弗吉尼亚州雷斯顿的食蟹猴身上发现。

科特迪瓦伊波拉病毒

●1994年11月1日首先在科特迪瓦的塔伊国家公园中两只黑猩猩尸体被发现。此病毒与苏丹伊波拉及扎伊尔伊波拉十分相似。

传播

●体液传染,空气传染(只可生存一段时间)

治疗

●现今唯一对抗方法为注射NPC1阻碍剂

目前英国科学家研究显示切勿吃含有蛋白质成分的食物,而科特迪瓦流传把牛尿煮沸饮用的方法,但目前还未获科学证实。

疫苗

●现已制造出使猴群不会被伊波拉病毒和马尔堡病毒感染的疫苗;这些疫苗是以基因重组过的囊状口腔炎病毒和滤过性病毒为基础,上面附着伊波拉病毒。

●现在也能够通过把伊波拉病毒中8个基因的其中一个“VP30”拿走,从而制造出自身无法复制的伊波拉病毒。但是,现在尚无对人类有效之疫苗。

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