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Archive for October 1, 2012

多吃「黑五類」 補充先天元氣

曾經遇到過一個這樣的病人,他是個十歲的男孩,由媽媽帶著來的。看上去他很瘦弱,個子也很矮,感覺只有六、七歲的樣子。不像一般的男孩子那樣活潑好 動,他只是靜靜地坐在媽媽的旁邊,好奇地打量著周圍。他媽媽說起他的情況,就一副很難過的樣子,說他從小就體弱多病,還不會吃飯就開始吃藥,比同齡的孩子 瘦很多。他特別容易感冒,每次都要到醫院去打幾天點滴才能好。因為身體不好,不得不經常休學在家養病,同齡的孩子都上四年級了,他還在二年級。家裡人為了 照顧他,簡直操碎了心。也找過很多醫生看,都說是先天不足,也沒什麼辦法,只能慢慢調養。雖然給他買了各種補品,但他胃口並不好,有時候吃了補品也不消 化,反而會拉肚子。

看著這個安靜的孩子,安慰他的媽媽道:「不用太擔心,慢慢調養,孩子身體能變強壯的。孩子這是先天元氣不足,發育受到了影響,才會身體瘦弱多病。只要注意調補腎氣,就能夠補足先天,促進發育。當然,對於正在長身體的孩子來說,藥補比不上食補。黑色入腎,為了補充元氣,我建議給他多吃一些黑色食品。我們平時說的『黑五類』就是很好的選擇。」

所謂「黑五類」就是指黑豆、黑芝麻、黑木耳、黑棗、黑核桃等黑色食物。經常吃這些食物,有很好的補腎作用。

黑豆/又名烏豆,味甘、性平,有蛋白質含量高、熱量低的特徵。黑豆被稱為「腎之穀」,有活血、利水、祛風、清熱解毒、滋養健血、補虛烏髮的功能。《本草綱目》中記載「常食黑豆,可百病不生」。對於壓力大、體虛乏力的現代人來說,黑豆是增強活力的靈丹妙藥。對於女性來說,黑豆還有美容養顏的作用。經常食用能夠烏髮美白,減少皺紋,延緩衰老。而有便祕情況的人,多吃些黑豆還能夠促進腸胃蠕動,防治便祕。而對於發育遲緩的孩子來說,黑豆也是很好的補益食物。黑豆的吃法很多,既可煮粥,又能燉食。可以給孩子做一些黑豆豆漿,或把黑豆打碎後做成點心,都很適宜孩子食用。

黑芝麻/也是很好的補充元氣的食物,味甘、性平,能夠補肝腎、益臟腑、長肌肉,對於肝腎虧虛造成的多種疾病都有很好的調理作用,如眩暈、少白頭、脫髮、乏力、腸燥便祕等。對於愛美的女性來說,黑芝麻也是很好的養顏食物。而經常在辦公室工作的腦力勞動者,更是要借助於黑芝麻來提升精力。黑芝麻雖然油脂含量很高,但對於高血脂也有一定的輔助治療作用,還能夠防治膽結石。所以身體虛弱的老年人也可以把黑芝麻當做是補身佳品。黑芝麻可以炒食,也可以在拌涼菜時放入一些或做成黑芝麻糊都是不錯的吃法。愛吃甜品的人還可以用黑芝麻做餡製成各種各樣的甜品食用。

黑木耳/也是一種典型的黑色食品,性平、味甘,有很好的益氣補腦、潤肺涼血、止血澀腸、美容養顏的功效。現代人還發現黑木耳有很好的防癌作用,對於預防心腦血管疾病也有不錯的療效。可將黑木耳炒肉絲食用。做 法是:黑木耳一百克,豬肉五十克,青椒一個,蔥薑末適量。把木耳泡發後切絲,豬肉洗淨切絲,青椒切絲,鍋中放入食用油燒熱後,放入蔥薑絲爆香,下豬肉翻炒 至變色,再放入青椒絲和木耳,加鹽炒至熟即可。這個菜清香可口,很適宜先天元氣不足的人食用。除了炒之外,黑木耳也可以用來燉湯、涮火鍋或做涼菜等,補益 效果都很好。

黑棗/性味甘溫,有滋補肝腎、潤燥生津、養血安神的作用。黑棗是大棗的乾品,補中養血的作用更顯著。經常食用黑棗還能夠增強身體的免疫力,對於便祕、貧血、乏力、失眠等有一定功效。需要注意的是,食用黑棗不宜過多,不然會引起胃酸和腹脹。給孩子食用黑棗,最好是煮粥時放入幾顆,既能夠補腎養血,還便於消化。

核桃/有 「長壽果」之稱,對於調補元氣作用奇佳。核桃味甘、性溫,有健胃補血、潤肺養神的功效。《本草綱目》中說核桃有「補氣養血,潤燥化痰,益命門,利三焦,溫 肺潤腸,治虛寒喘咳,腰腳重疼,心腹疝痛,血痢腸風」的作用。女性常吃一些核桃,能夠潤膚養顏。兒童常吃核桃能夠健腦益智。有些人特別迷信補藥,其實,只 要每天吃幾顆核桃,就能夠起到很好的補益身體的作用,遠比吃補藥效果更好。核桃可以生吃,也可以炒、燉、蘸糖或煮粥食用。

除了這些黑色食物外,紫菜、海帶、黑米、香菇等食物也是黑色家族中的重要成員,適當食用能夠補先天元氣。這個男孩子食用了一段黑色食物後,他媽媽打電話來說他的身體抵抗力有了明顯提高,變得很少感冒了,而且人也活潑了許多,顯得很有活力。

(本文作者/薛永東)
(摘自/養生要養腎陽/八正文化出版)

i-Nature

飲料就算無糖也還是不好?

若飲料中多餘的糖還不足以讓你不再喝汽水和果汁,或許我們應該更仔細看一下一般飲料的成分,看還有什麼東西會害死你。汽水的成分通常是碳酸水(含二氧化碳的水)、甜味劑、磷酸、人工香料及天然香料、乳酸、咖啡因及防腐劑。我們就把這份清單簡化成碳酸水、甜味劑和化學物質好了。

除了糖和甜味劑之外,磷酸是第三號罪魁禍首,這也是為什麼就算只喝無糖飲料也不安全的原因。飲料廠商在飲料中添加這種化學物質,是為了讓碳保留在碳酸水中,等到飲料罐「砰」一聲打開來時,才將這種氣體釋放出來。科學告訴我們,吃進磷酸,就會把磷帶進血液裡。

我 剛剛有提到鈣磷比嗎?沒有?很好,那你看仔細了。通常人吃糖時,體內磷的數量會下降,鈣的數量會上升,可是這些礦物質只會在一個固定的比例下運作,而且這 個比例永遠不會改變。我們前面說過,礦物質要在相互作用下才能發揮效用,這就是一個很好的例子。鈣變多,磷變少,就表示有很多鈣沒有磷跟它配合,只能待在 那裡無所事事。身體不接受怠工的礦物質,會把這些礦物質視為毒素。許多影響牙齒、關節、眼睛和血管的斑塊(plaques),通常主要的成分就是沒有作用 的鈣。

這樣說來,在含糖食物中加入磷來抵銷吃糖的後果,似乎是很合理的作法。例如,喝罐汽水就能把磷的數量再拉上來,這似乎是個不錯的辦 法。可是血液中的磷太多,也會對健康產生不良的影響。如果你認為喝罐汽水可以抵銷你剛剛吃的那塊巧克力蛋糕,別忘了,那罐汽水裡除了磷之外,還有糖、咖啡 因和其他化學物質,這些東西都會以不同的方式抑制免疫系統,讓你生病。

磷酸是會讓人提心吊膽的化學物質。它會提高磷的數量,改變人體的酸鹼值,所以它是高酸性食物,而酸性也是身體的一大壓力。磷酸碰到體內組織算是重傷害,就跟電池酸液濺到皮膚的效果一樣。在高酸性的環境中,大部分的免疫系統都會罷工,這也是讓人生病的不敗祕方。

很 多汽水都含有2-乙醯-4-四羥丁基咪唑(2-acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole),因為這個字太拗口了,通常都 縮寫為THI。可樂類的汽水呈焦糖色,就是因為有這種東西。THI本身就會抑制免疫系統,或許是因為消化系統沒有辦法將THI分解成身體能利用的物質。因 此,免疫系統就會啟動防衛機制,幫助身體把THI趕出去。事實上,澳洲研究人員曾建議用THI來治療關節炎或 狼瘡等自體免疫疾病,因為這些疾病就是免疫系統過度反應引起的。免疫系統過度反應,就會變得太活躍,而用THI來壓抑免疫系統,或減緩免疫系統的動作,目 的是要讓免疫系統正常運作。可是對症下藥去解決狼瘡或關節炎的病因,似乎是比吃THI更合理的辦法,因為壓抑免疫系統會導致其他問題,譬如讓你更容易生 病。

研究人員還建議在移植手術時使用THI,以防止器官產生排斥反應。進行移植手術時,免疫系統會過度反應,因為它想驅逐外來的入侵者(移 植進來的器官)。使用THI則能壓抑免疫系統,希望能讓移植器官在體內好好生長。這些研究人員的建議正好讓我拿來這裡當作證據,畢竟大部分的人都不希望自 己的免疫系統受到抑制。

(本文作者/南西.艾波頓、G.N.賈可伯斯)
(摘自/甜死你/八正文化出版)

i-Nature

Fricassee of Chanterelles

Fricassee of Chanterelles

Ingredients

  • 6 tablespoons (3/4 stick) unsalted butter, divided
  • 2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil, divided
  • 1 small yellow onion, finely chopped (about 1 cup)
  • Kosher salt, freshly ground pepper
  • 3 garlic cloves, finely chopped
  • 1/4 cup dry white wine
  • 1 pound chanterelles, brushed clean (halved if large)
  • 1/2 cup heavy cream
  • Pinch of freshly grated nutmeg
  • 1 teaspoon fresh oregano plus more for garnish
  • Fresh lemon juice
  • 1/4 pound pappardelle, cooked al dente, or 1 pound boiled new potatoes

Preparation

  • Melt 3 tablespoons butter with 1 tablespoon oil in a large skillet over medium-high heat. Add onion, season with salt and pepper, and cook, stirring occasionally, until softened and lightly golden, 4-5 minutes. Add garlic and cook for 1 minute. Stir in wine and cook until liquid is reduced by half, about 2 minutes. Add remaining 3 tablespoons butter, remaining 1 tablespoon oil, and mushrooms. Cook, stirring occasionally, until mushrooms are lightly golden, about 5 minutes. Add cream and nutmeg and cook until slightly thickened, about 2 minutes. Stir in 1 teaspoon oregano. Season to taste with salt, pepper, and lemon juice. Toss in a skillet with cooked pasta, or serve over smashed boiled potatoes. Garnish with more oregano.

Bonappetit

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Appadvice

New ‘Sars-like’ not easily transmitted says WHO

Coronavirus

In both cases to date, the infection was acquired in the Middle East

A new respiratory illness – from the same family as the Sars virus – appears not to spread easily, experts at the World Health Organization (WHO) say.

A Qatari man, 49, with the virus is being treated in London. The first person known to have had it, in Saudi Arabia, died.

The WHO said on Friday that it appeared the new virus “cannot be easily transmitted from person to person.”

The Sars virus, which emerged in China in 2002, killed hundreds of people.

Both Sars (severe acute respiratory syndrome) and the new, un-named, virus – as well as the common cold virus – belong to the coronavirus family

But this new virus is different from any coronaviruses previously identified in humans.

Both of the patients known to have had the virus experienced kidney failure.

Zoonotic

The WHO said it would continue to monitor the situation but was not recommending any travel restrictions for Saudi Arabia or Qatar.

However it said it was working closely with Saudi authorities in advance of the forthcoming Hajj, the annual Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca.

The WHO also announced diagnostic tests were being developed by scientists around the world as quickly as possible.

The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), which monitors disease in the European Union, said initial findings suggested the virus may have originated in animals – diseases known as zoonotic.

Writing in the journal Eurosurveillance, they said: “It is quite probably of zoonotic origin and different in behaviour to Sars.”

BBC

HIV ‘made’ new deadly Salmonella – study

By James Gallagher Health and science reporter, BBC News
Salmonella

A new strain of deadly Salmonella may have emerged in the wake of HIV

An epidemic of a deadly strain of Salmonella has swept across the whole of Africa by “taking advantage” of the spread of HIV, according to an international team of researchers.

Their study, published in Nature Genetics, is the first to identify the separate cases as a single epidemic.

One in four people in Africa infected with the strain died.

It is thought to be the first time a single strain of an infection has spread so widely in the wake of HIV.

Cases of this form of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella have been recognised in Africa for more than a decade. It causes fever, headaches, respiratory problems and sometimes death.

It quite clearly parallels the emergence of HIV in Africa”

Prof Gordon Dougan Sanger Institute

The research team analysed the genetic code of 179 batches of Salmonella from different parts of Africa and the rest of the globe. Using techniques similar to a large-scale DNA paternity test, they were able to construct the strain’s “family tree” and then how it spread.

It happened in two waves. The first started in south-eastern Africa about 52 years ago and the second wave started 35 years ago from the Congo Basin.

Prof Gordon Dougan, from the Sanger Institute in Cambridge in the UK, told the BBC: “It quite clearly parallels the emergence of HIV in Africa.”

HIV attacks the immune system and leaves people more vulnerable to other infections. It is thought the strain of Salmonella Typhimurium took advantage of this weakness and spread. The research team said the bacterium was given the chance to “enter, adapt, circulate and thrive”.

There is poor monitoring data for the disease across the whole of the continent, but Prof Dougan said it was affecting “thousands and thousands” of people and that 98% of adult cases were in people with HIV.

It’s actually quite a huge problem and it seems to be getting worse because there are many susceptible people, it’s got a grip in Africa”

Prof Brendan Wren London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

He said this spread of Salmonella Typhimurium had been different to that of other infections commonly associated with HIV, as it had been a single epidemic “people were completely unaware” of and there “were not really any other examples” of that happening.

Dr Melita Gordon, a gastro-enterologist at the University of Liverpool, said: “It’s the first time this has been described right across a continent in such an obvious way.”

She added: “The highest mortality associated with the disease is 80%. What’s happened over the years is mortality has fallen down and down and down to between 20% and 25% as doctors inside Africa recognise it.”

The genetic analysis also showed the strain was resistant to the first choice antibiotic, chloramphenicol, which means more expensive drugs would be needed to treat the infection.

It is thought that improving HIV treatment across Africa could reduce the prevalence of the Salmonella infection, as it would reduce the number of people with vulnerable immune systems. However, the researchers urged “vigilance” in case the Salmonella strain mutated again to become able to infect people with healthy immune systems.

Commenting on the study, Prof Brendan Wren, from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, told the BBC: “It’s actually quite a huge problem and it seems to be getting worse because there are many susceptible people, it’s got a grip in Africa.

“HIV, I think it’s fair to say, provided a springboard for it to take off.”

However, he thought the disease was “near its peak” as HIV was more controlled in other continents giving it little room to spread.

BBC

New blood ‘booster’ tested in UK-led clinical trials

By Neil Bowdler Health reporter, BBC News
A graphic by the makers of the MP4OX compound being tested in clinical trials

A graphic by the makers of the MP4OX compound being tested in clinical trials

A London hospital is leading a worldwide trial of a drug designed to aid the recovery of patients with heavy blood loss.

MP4OX is made from expired blood stocks and seeks to replicate the function of red blood cells in carrying oxygen around the body.

It is being given to patients with heavy blood loss in 56 centres around the world.

The Royal London Hospital is leading the clinical trials.

MP4OX has been developed by US pharmaceutical company Sangart, which is funding the trial, and is a haemoglobin-based product processed from expired blood transfusion stocks.

Haemoglobin molecules are the proteins in red blood cells which carry oxygen to muscles and tissue around the body.

In trauma patients who have undergone heavy blood loss, these molecules are in short supply, and its makers claim MP4OX can deliver an oxygen boost to organs and tissue in the body, reducing the risk of organ failure.

They say it carries no infection risk and can be given safely to all patients.

 

The initial trial seemed to show that people got out of hospital much quicker than patients who hadn’t had the drug”

Prof Karm Brohi The Royal London Hospital

Prof Karim Brohi, of the Barts and The Royal London Hospital, is leading the trials.

“We’re giving it to people who been severely injured in car crashes, have fallen out of a window, been stabbed etc,” he told BBC News.

“Basically it’s a drug which takes up oxygen and delivers it to cells which are are starved of oxygen because there’s not enough blood going around the body.”

The drug has already been tested in a pilot trial of 50 patients, which appeared to show the drug was safe.

That pilot has now been extended to a worldwide trial encompassing some 360 patients, to further test its safety and efficacy. That trial is now approaching completion although the researchers have yet to process any of the results.

“In the initial trial, it seemed to show that people got out of hospital much quicker than patients who hadn’t had the drug,” he said.

“It was a small trial with lots of room for error, but there was a pretty strong signal that there were a lot more patients who were alive and out of hospital at 28 days compared to the ones who hadn’t had the drug.”

However, he stressed that it was only after results from the extended “Phase 2b” trial were in, that they would know how much promise the drug showed.

The trial is what is know as “randomised”, with patients randomly prescribed the drug or a placebo according to instructions enclosed in a sealed paper envelope. The drug is also wrapped up in a black bag in the lab prior to delivery to the ward or theatre, so neither clinicians nor patient know what they are being given.

These measures are designed to improve the accuracy and impartiality of results.

The trial is one of many projects around the world in which researchers are trying to replicate some of the functions of blood.

A recent BBC Radio 4 documentary looked at some of the attempts, past and present, to create artificial blood products, including efforts to develop haemoglobin treatments from E.coli bacteria and from stem cells.

But Prof Brohi says MP4OX should not be regarded as “artificial blood”.

“This isn’t a substitute for blood because we give less than a Coke can’s worth to each patient – while these patients may have lost up to five litres of blood – so in no way is it a substitute for giving red blood cells to patients,” he said.

“What it’s doing is augmenting the ability of those red blood cells to do their job.”

BBC

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