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Archive for June, 2012

Tangy Potato Salad with Scallions

Ingredients

  • Coarse salt and ground pepper
  • 4 pounds Yukon gold or other waxy potatoes, scrubbed, halved, and sliced 1/2 inch thick
  • 1/2 cup white-wine vinegar
  • 4 scallions, thinly sliced
  • 1/2 cup olive oil

Directions

  1. Set a steamer basket in a large pot. Fill with enough salted water to come just below basket. Bring to a boil; place potatoes in basket, and reduce heat to medium. Cover, and steam, gently tossing occasionally, until crisp-tender, 10 to 15 minutes.
  2. Meanwhile, combine vinegar and scallions in a large bowl; season with salt and pepper. When potatoes are cooked, transfer to bowl with vinegar mixture. Toss to combine; let cool, tossing occasionally.
  3. When potato mixture is cool, mix in oil; season potato salad with salt and pepper.

 

MarthaStewart

Grilled Shrimp with Chile, Cilantro, and Lime

You bought the freshest-looking shrimp, baby squid, or whole fish you could find. Now what? Follow Pelaccio’s road map for any kind of seafood: Marinate it in turmeric and fish sauce, grill it quickly over high heat, then pair it with a fiery dipping sauce.

 

Grilled Shrimp with Chile, Cilantro, and Lime

Ingredients

  • 16 jumbo shrimp, unpeeled, preferably head-on
  • 6 tablespoons fish sauce (such as nuoc nam or nam pla), divided
  • 4 tablespoons vegetable oil, divided, plus more for grill
  • 2 teaspoons turmeric
  • 30 cilantro sprigs, chopped
  • 10 long red chiles (such as Holland or Anaheim), stemmed
  • 8 garlic cloves
  • 2 1″ pieces ginger, peeled
  • 1/4 cup fresh lime juice
  • 2 tablespoons palm sugar or (packed) light brown sugar

Preparation

  • Combine shrimp, 2 Tbsp. fish sauce, 2 Tbsp. oil, and turmeric in a large bowl; toss to coat. Let stand for 30 minutes.
  • Purée 4 Tbsp. fish sauce, 2 Tbsp. oil, cilantro, and remaining ingredients in a blender or food processor until a coarse mixture forms; transfer dipping sauce to a small bowl and set aside.
  • Build a medium-hot fire in a charcoal grill, or heat a gas grill to high. Oil grill grates. Shake excess liquid from shrimp and place shrimp on grill. Cook, turning occasionally, until shrimp are charred and cooked through, 5-6 minutes.
  • Serve immediately with sauce.

Bonappetit

US and Europe see return of measles

Europe witnesses measles comeback
Fears of immunisation blamed for rise in disease which had been on the wane for decades.

Health authorities in the US and Europe are reporting a sudden rise in the number of people contracting measles.

Ten years ago, the infection killed 800,000 people worldwide, but aggressive vaccination campaigns have sharply reduced the global mortality rate, especially in Africa and Asia.

Yet in the US, where the disease had been declared eradicated, measles is on a comeback. Most cases are traced to unvaccinated travellers, but the highly contagious virus may also be spreading because of parents who refuse to vaccinate their children.

Al Jazeera‘s Tom Ackerman reports.

Popeye is right: Spinach makes you stronger, study shows

Tuesday, Jun 26, 2012
AFP

STOCKHOLM – Famous cartoon character Popeye is right to down a can of spinach when he wants his biceps to bulge, according to a Swedish study presented on Monday showing why the leafy vegetable makes us stronger.

Researchers at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm said on Monday they had conducted a study showing how nitrate, found naturally in spinach and several other vegetables, tones up muscles.

For the study, which will be published in the Journal of Physiology, the research team had placed nitrate directly in the drinking water of a group of mice for one week and then dissected them and compared their muscle functions to that of a control group.

‘The mice that had been on consistent nitrate had much stronger muscles,’ they said in a statement.

The nitrate used ‘was equivalent to a human’s consumption of about 200 to 250 grammes of spinach a day, so it’s a very easily obtained amount,’ one of the researchers at the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Dr Andres Hernandez, told AFP.

‘Well, it is if you eat spinach. For people who don’t eat their vegetables it will be more tricky,’ he added.

While no effect could be seen in the so-called slow-twitch muscles used for moderate exercise and endurance, the scientists saw a clear change could be seen in the fast-twitch muscles used for strength and more high-intensity exercises, Dr Hernandez said.

The tricky question, he said, was determining why this happened.

The researchers discovered that the nitrates had prompted an increase in two proteins, found naturally in the muscles, that are used for storing and releasing calcium, which is vital to making muscles contract.

The protein increase in turn led to higher quantities of calcium released in the muscles, Dr Hernandez said, pointing out that ‘if you have more calcium released, you have a stronger contraction.’ Translated into human terms, consuming nitrates from for instance spinach increases the muscle strength available for things like lifting weights or sprinting up a steep hill.

It could also increase endurance, Dr Hernandez said, pointing out that when stronger, the fast-twitch muscles, which fatigue faster than other muscles, do not need to contract as frequently.

This is not only good news for exercise buffs looking to improve their performance.

‘The really exciting part is to go ahead and look at people with muscle weakness, with muscle diseases, and even aging, and see if this can actually improve their muscle function,’ Dr Hernandez said.

He said the research team aimed to conduct a few more studies on mice but hoped to also carry out studies on humans soon.

asiaone

National Botanic Garden of Wales logs plant DNA barcode

Spreading bellflower Campanula patula

The spreading bellflower, campanula patula, is among the plants whose DNA is recorded

 

Wales has recorded the DNA of all its native flowering plants, which has potential to help conservation and develop new drugs to fight illnesses.

The National Botanic Garden of Wales says it is the first country in the world to create the database.

Wales has about 75% of UK flowering plants, and the database has 1,143 plants and conifers.

Barcodes are short DNA sequences and plants can be identified from pollen grains, seed pieces, or roots and wood.

Other plants introduced by humans will form the next phase of the three-year project.

 

HONEY BEE HOPE IN FIGHT OVER HOSPITAL BUGS

PhD student Jenny Hawkins is working on a joint project between the garden and the School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences at Cardiff University to DNA barcode honey.

She has collected honey from across the UK and is testing its ability to kill hospital acquired infections such as MRSA.

She will then DNA barcode the honey to find out what plants bees visited to make it.

Ms Hawkins said: “By DNA barcoding the honey, we are looking for links between honey with good medicinal properties and particular plant species.

“If we find it, we might be able to make a super honey by allowing bees to forage on plants that provide high antibacterial properties.”

The Barcode Wales project has been led by Dr Natasha de Vere, head of conservation and research from the National Botanic Garden in Carmarthenshire.

She said: “Wales is now in the unique position of being able to identify plant species from materials which in the past would have been incredibly difficult or impossible.

“Through the Barcode Wales project, we have created a powerful platform for a broad range of research from biodiversity conservation to human health.”

The Welsh flora DNA barcodes are available on the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) for use by researchers throughout the world.

DNA barcoding may be able to help in the crisis facing pollinating insects such as bees, according to Dr de Vere.

Pollination role

She is working with PhD student Andrew Lucas from the Swansea Ecology Research Team (SERT) at Swansea University to investigate the role hoverflies play in pollination.

Research will find out where hoverflies go by DNA barcoding the pollen carried on their bodies.

It will tell researchers “how hoverflies move through the landscape and the importance of habitat quality,” said Mr Lucas.

Partners in the Barcode Wales project include the National Museum Wales and Aberystwyth and Glamorgan universities, as well as the Botanical Society of the British Isles, and High Performance Computing (HPC) Wales.

BBC

EEG brain trace ‘can detect autism’

EEG

The researchers found 33 EEG patterns linked to autism

 

A simple brain trace can identify autism in children as young as two years old, scientists believe.

A US team at Boston Children’s Hospital say EEG traces, which record electrical brain activity using scalp electrodes, could offer a diagnostic test for this complex condition.

EEG clearly distinguished children with autism from other peers in a trial involving nearly 1,000 children.

Experts say more work is needed to confirm the BMC Medicine study results.

Early detectionThere are more than 500,000 people with autism in the UK.

Autism is a spectrum disorder, which means that it is not a single condition and will affect individuals in different ways.

Commonly, people with autism have trouble with social interaction and can appear locked in their own worlds.

It can be a difficult condition to diagnose and can go undetected for years.

EEG might offer a way to check for the same condition in younger siblings”

Dr Frank Duffy Lead investigator

The latest study found 33 specific EEG patterns that appeared to be linked to autism.

These patterns consistently spotted autism in children across a range of age groups, spanning from two to 12 years old.

Hallmark brain activityThe researchers repeated their analysis 10 times, splitting up their study group (children with a medical diagnosis of autism and children with no signs of autism) in different ways.

Around 90% of the time, the EEG patterns could correctly detect the children diagnosed with autism.

The team now plan to repeat their study in children with Asperger’s syndrome – one particular subset of autism. Typically, people with Asperger’s have higher-than-average intelligence and struggle less than people with other types of autism with their speech.

Dr Frank Duffy who is leading the investigation said the work could help determine if Asperger’s should be thought of as an entirely separate condition.

And it could point the way to determining if younger siblings of children with autism are likely to develop the same condition themselves.

“It is a great cause of anxiety when an older sibling develops autism.

“EEG might offer a way to check for the same condition in younger siblings in advance of them having symptoms.”

EEG could also be used to track what effect different autism treatments are having on the condition, he said.

Caroline Hattersley of The National Autistic Society said: “We welcome any research that may help us to understand autism better and improve diagnosis times for those with the condition.

“In a recent survey we commissioned, 50% of people with autism and their families said it was difficult to get a diagnosis and 55% said the process took too long.

“While further testing of EEG scans is still required, any tools that help identify autism at a younger age could potentially improve a person’s quality of life by allowing the right support to be put in place earlier.”

BBC

Role of stress in dementia investigated

Scrabble letters spelling stress

Ongoing research suggests stress might play a part in dementia

UK experts are to begin a study to find out if stress can trigger dementia.

The investigation, funded by the Alzheimer’s Society, will monitor 140 people with mild cognitive impairment or “pre-dementia” and look at how stress affects their condition.

The researchers will take blood and saliva samples at six-monthly intervals over the 18 months of the study to measure biological markers of stress.

They hope their work will reveal ways to prevent dementia.

The results could offer clues to new treatments or better ways of managing the condition, they say.

Dementia triggers

People who have mild cognitive impairment are at an increased risk of going on to develop dementia – although some will remain stable and others may improve.

Something such as bereavement or a traumatic experience – possibly even moving home – are also potential factors”

Prof Clive Holmes Lead of the new investigation

And past work suggests mid-life stress may increase a person’s risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

A Swedish study that followed nearly 1,500 women for a period of 35 years found the risk of dementia was about 65% higher in women who reported repeated periods of stress in middle age than in those who did not.

Scottish scientists, who have done studies in animals, believe the link may be down to hormones the body releases in response to stress which interfere with brain function.

Prof Clive Holmes, from the University of Southampton, who will lead the study, said: “All of us go through stressful events. We are looking to understand how these may become a risk factor for the development of Alzheimer’s.

“Something such as bereavement or a traumatic experience – possibly even moving home – are also potential factors.

“This is the first stage in developing ways in which to intervene with psychological or drug-based treatments to fight the disease.

“We are looking at two aspects of stress relief – physical and psychological – and the body’s response to that experience.”

Dr Simon Ridley, of Alzheimer’s Research UK, said: “We welcome any research that could shed new light on Alzheimer’s disease and other causes of dementia.

“Understanding the risk factors for Alzheimer’s could provide one piece of the puzzle we need to take us closer to a treatment that could stop the disease in its tracks.”

BBC

生育藥物影響孩子身高

生育藥物,又叫多仔丸,幫助無數男女實現了做父母的夢想。根據一項新的研究,在生育藥的幫助下受孕的孩子比那些自然受孕的孩子更矮。

內分泌協會第94屆年度會議在休斯頓舉行,研究人員在會上提出,以往的研究認為試管嬰兒可能比自然受孕的孩子個子高,最新的研究旨在檢查只服用舒經酚等生育藥物,而不是通過體外受精出生的兒童與自然受孕孩子的身高是否有差異。

一名護士正在為新生兒測量身高

奧克蘭大學裏金斯學院的科學家,研究了84名靠生育藥物出生的兒童和258名自然受孕的兒童。接受研究的所有兒童都在3到10歲之間足月妊娠的獨生子。為了優化研究的准確性,研究並沒有包括出生時體重低或早產的兒童,因為在這些條件下出生的孩子通常有健康問題的風險較高。

研究人員發現,雖然他們的身高在正常範圍內,但接受生育藥物受孕的孩子平均身高比自然懷孕的矮一英寸,即使研究人員統一了家長的身高(決定兒童身高最重要 的因素)。研究人員認為,男孩之間的高度差比女孩更明顯,自然受孕的男孩比借生育藥物出生的高一英寸。同時薩維奇和他的團隊發現,生育藥物和自然受孕的兒 童身體健康沒有顯著差異。

科學家們無法查明生育藥物受孕的孩子身材略短的原因,也不清楚這些孩子們能否達到其他成人的身高。然而,他們認為懷孕前後發生的事情可能和身高差異有關。身材較矮可能是“印記”變異或基因表達的異常變化造成的,這在正常發育過程中非常重要,與卵巢刺激的過程有關。

薩維奇說:“生育治療意義重大,在發達國家選擇通過生育藥物懷孕的人群是試管嬰兒的兩倍,占所有活產嬰兒的5%:生育治療幫助數以百萬計的夫妻實現了做父母的夢想。重要的是繼續在這一領域的研究,給醫生,家長和兒童提供有價值的信息。

醫藥日報

吸二手煙 更易患2型糖尿病和肥胖癥

新研究顯示,吸二手煙的成年人比其他非吸煙者有更易患肥胖和2型糖尿病。

這項試驗是由查爾斯河德魯大學進行的,研究的參與者是2001年至2006年全國健康和營養調查中的6300名成人。研究人員通過測量了二手煙中尼古丁的含量並進行分析。尼古丁一個代謝物就是血清。

secondhand smokers 

他們先控制年齡、性別、種族、飲酒和體力活動,研究發現那些被定位為吸二手煙者或每毫升血液中尼古丁含量在0.05至3之間的人,比尼古丁含量低於 0.05毫微克/毫升的人更易患2型糖尿病,並且體內含胰島素量含更高。同時吸二手煙者也導致體內含有更高的空腹血糖、血糖或血紅蛋白 A1c含量,

而血紅蛋白 A1c在過去三個月是血糖控制的一種措施。這表明與吸煙較少者相比,吸煙者和吸二手煙者對血糖的控制水平較差。這樣就解釋了處在二手煙環境中的人群患2型糖尿病的風險與吸煙者相似。

Friedman說:“這項研究顯示,二手煙和2型糖尿病的關聯不是由於肥胖導致的。不過還需更多的試驗來查驗是否二手煙是否會導致糖尿病,當前研究僅僅說明二者的相關性”。

正如查爾斯河德魯大學的研究主席Theodore Friedman在洛杉磯一份聲明中表示的那樣:“需要加大力度減少個人吸二手煙”。

研究結果在被同行評議期刊出版前,應被認定為是初步的。

醫藥日報

愛讓你走出痛苦 為你身心保鮮

新研究發現,只要想到心愛的人消極痛苦的情緒就會得到緩和。不僅如此,愛情對身體和精神還有保鮮作用,保鮮期至少一個月。

痛苦的記憶往往是壓力的主要來源。例如,想起最近的離別或在生活、工作中的不良表現時,人們彷彿被澆了一盆涼水,感到消極痛苦。但這是,如果能夠想一下所 愛的人,或看一下他們的照片,無論是母親還是配偶,他們的支持或照片都能幫助低穀中的人們從消極情緒中走出來,得到恢複。

 

為了證實該理論,研究人員共進行了4項實驗。參與者需要想一些不開心的事情,然後再回憶一件充滿愛與溫暖的事情。

在第一個試驗中,參與者被要求回想母親對自己的支持。

第二個試驗中,參與者需要看一張自己母親的照片。

第三個試驗中,參與者被要求看他們浪漫伴侶的照片。

第四個試驗,參與者被要求回想 一個曾經負面的經曆,但同時要適當對情感進行控制,然後再看一張陌生人的照片。

研究人員發現,當人們看到心愛的人或想起一段很美妙的經曆時,就不會陷入到消極情緒中太久。即便那些正陷入負面情緒中的人,一想起心愛的人,自身的壓力和身體問題也會得到緩解。

這是因為當人在痛苦時看到一張能喚醒自己愛的回憶的照片時,大腦里有個叫腹內側前額葉皮層區域(VMPFC)活動會增加。這個部分傳遞給人安全信號。根據 當前報道,這種方法可以幫助那些無法克服消極經歷的人,而且非常有效。研究員表示:“如果你要搬到一個新城市,把親人的照片貼在電冰箱上會比較暖心;如果 你收到了心愛的人表示支持的短訊,那麼把它存在你的手機里,方便以後回顧。”

醫藥日報

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